## Design Radius of Curvature

Determining the entry and exit points, the depths that must be achieved, and direction changes for the drill path are all major parts of the planning process. One of the keys to these calculations is the bend radius of the drill rod and/or the product pipe. Bend radius is often misunderstood. It is often confused with the number of feet needed to make a 90-degree turn. Bend radius is defined as the forward distance required for a drill string to make a 90-degree turn (see Figure 4-2).

Understanding bend radius and how to use it is very important to the success of a HDD crossing and of the utmost importance to the engineer and driller. HDD

314-feet of pipe required

314-feet of pipe required

HDD Rig

FIGURE 4-2 Bend Radius for 90-Degree Bend contractors often only think of radius as it applies to the drill rod, and owners/engineers often think of it as it applies to the product pipe. Both must be considered during the HDD design, as well as the allowable bend radius of mud motors and wireline systems.

Drill Rod. Bend radius is a key factor in any HDD design because it is an indication of how much bending the drill rod can handle without significant and possibly harmful stresses. Exceeding the allowable bend radius can result in significant damage to the pipe or drill rod. While drill-rod manufacturers may use different methods to establish the bend-radius rating for their pipe, SAE standard J2022 provides a voluntary guideline for evaluating drill rods using the same baseline. It is necessary to know what method of calculation is being used by a manufacturer when comparing the bend radius of drill rods from different manufacturers.

Regardless of the design, drill-rod wear and ultimate failure will happen. However, effective designs with proper bend-radius ranges will help extend the useful life of the drill rod. Drill-rig manuals provide data concerning the bend radius for the drill rod and recommendations and allowable steering changes for each section of the rod. The recommended allowable steering changes provided apply to both up or down pitch changes as well as left or right corrections. Allowable bend-radius information is used to determine the setback distance required by the drill unit at the entry point. Shallower bore depths require smaller entry angles and greater setback distances, while deeper bore depths allow for steeper entry angles. Any changes and corrections that are made during the drill should not exceed the recommended bend radius of the drill rod. When the bend radius is exceeded, the useful life of the drill rod decreases dramatically. The damage that is done to the drill rod is subtle and most likely will not be noticed immediately. The failure of the drill rod usually occurs several jobs after the damage is done.

Product Pipe or Conduit. Steel product pipe usually has a much larger bend radius than the drill rod. The largest bend radius of either the drill rod or product pipe is the number that must be used for planning and completing the bore. A common industry standard for determining the design radius of curvature for bends used in HDD installations is to multiply the nominal diameter of the pipe in inches by 100 to determine the allowable radius in feet. This relationship has been developed over the years in the HDD industry and is based on experience, not theoretical analysis. Bending radius and stress calculations are important for HDD installations. Methods for calculating bending stresses in steel pipe have been presented in many publications and are covered in this chapter and in Chapter 5 of this book.

In general the bending radius ratings for plastic, generally PVC or PE, pipe will not exceed that of the drill rod. The exception may be the larger diameters of these types of pipe, where the integrity of the pipe and the joints becomes a concern if they are pulled through severe bends. Bending stresses and bend radius are usually not critical factors for PVC, PE, and ductile-iron products; however, they should be calculated and compared to the manufacturer's specifications for allowable bending radius. There is much data from the Plastics Pipe Institute and pipe manufacturers on this subject. The general equations for calculating bending stresses are similar for steel, PE, and other materials, but the material properties and behavior are different and must be accounted for during any calculations.

Exceeding the recommended bend radius of the product pipe has consequences that may be apparent during installation or not show up for years, reducing the life of the product pipe. The main result during installation is a harder than expected pullback. The product pipe must go through tight bends and curves, and there is a much greater chance of getting stuck in the hole. If the drill path is smooth and gradual, the pullback loads are smaller and the pull will be much easier and quicker.

An area of concern, often overlooked, when considering the allowable bend radius involves the use of mud motors and wireline systems. The mud motor is a very stiff section, and depending upon the length, it generally has a bend radius greater than the drill rod. The stainless-steel monel section that houses the steering tool is also very stiff and more brittle than the drill rod. The suppliers of the mud motor and steering tools can provide information and recommendations concerning the allowable bend radius of their products. When using these tools, the designer should always factor their limits into the bore plan.

### Pipe Stress Criteria

Typical products installed by HDD construction are composed of steel, polyethylene (HDPE and PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ductile iron, as well as direct buried cables. During installation the pipeline products experience a combination of tensile, bending, and compressive stresses. The magnitude of these stresses is a function of the approach angle, bending radius, product diameter, length of the borehole, and the soil properties at the site. Proper selection of the radius of curvature and type of product will ensure that these stresses do not exceed the product capacity during the installation. The HDD design should require the minimum number of product-pipe joints. Flush-type joints, such as butt fusion or welding, are preferable to glued or treaded joints, which tend to increase the drag on the product in the bore hole. Other considerations include minimum cover, minimum separation from existing utilities, tolerances for deviation in the vertical and horizontal profiles, and maximum true depth.

During the design, the stresses imposed on the HDD product pipe during construction and operation must be calculated and checked to be within allowable limits for the material being used. The stresses at each stage must be considered both individually and in combination. Stresses come from the spanning between rollers prior to pullback, the hydrostatic testing pressures, pulling forces during installation, radius of curvature as the pipe enters the ground, the drilling profile curvature, external pressures in the drilled hole, and the working pressure. The load and stress analysis for a HDD pipeline is different from similar analyses of conventionally buried pipelines because of the high-tension loads, occasional severe bending, and external fluid pressures endured by the pipeline during the installation process. In some cases the installation loads may be higher than the design service loads. Pipeline properties, such as wall thickness and material grade, and pilot-hole bore path must be selected so the pipeline can be installed and operated without risk of damage.

During design the preinstallation, installation, and operating stresses of the product pipe must be considered and analyzed. Chapters 5 and 6 of this book cover the methods for estimating these stresses. The principal stresses of concern are listed below.

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### Responses

• yerusalem robel
How to find radius of curvature for hdd section?
6 years ago
• curzio
Where is the mean radius of a pipe?
5 years ago
• costantino
What bending radius a horizontal directional drilling limits?
5 years ago
• Liam
How to calculate the hdd pipeline profile?
5 years ago
• PEONY
What is drilling unit horizontal setback?
5 years ago
• Manuela
How find radius of curvature of steel pipe horizontal directional drilling?
5 years ago
• jane
How to measure bend radius of pipe directional drilling?
5 years ago
• Yonatan Petros
How to calculate radius of curvature for pipe in horizontal directionall drilling?
5 years ago
• myla
How to make a HDD drill profile?
5 years ago
• TEGAN
How to get radius of curvature in hdd profile?
5 years ago
• Ortensio
How to calculate the change in Horizontal Directional Drilling angle?
5 years ago
• james
How to make drill path profile in horizontal directionall drilling?
5 years ago
• ashish
how to calculate radius of curvature of a steel pipe
5 years ago
• richard smithers
How to calcualte directional drilling rods?
5 years ago
• kelsi
How to calculate pitch in directional drilling?
4 years ago
• lisa ontiveros
How to figure out how much bore pipe needed for an HDD?
4 years ago
• Nibs Bolger
How much will a 30" pipeline bend in a hdd?
4 years ago
• Jim
Can HDD driling make a 25 degree radius turn?
4 years ago
• Daniele
How to calculate left or right of line for directional drilling?
4 years ago
• ulrike schweitzer
How much to drill a bore in nsw?
4 years ago
• Susanne
How to compute length of horizontal drilling?
4 years ago
• MICHELLE
What is the minmum radius that can be achieve by directional boring?
4 years ago
• DIETER
Is the drilling pipe bent?
4 years ago
HOW TO CALCULATE A RADIUS FOR A PIPE BORE?
4 years ago
• rachele
What is the tightest radius for horizontal directional drills?
4 years ago
• colette
How to figure out radius for a directional drill?
4 years ago
• Kyle
What is the maximum horizontal radius that we can directional drill HDPE?
3 years ago
• jill carillo
What radius can a directional driller bore?
3 years ago
• bobbi
What are the signals that a stuck pipe will happen in horizontal drilling?
3 years ago
• gerda
What is the shortest footage for a 16" HDD bore?
3 years ago
• yemane
How to calculat the lingth of pipe needed to make a directiol boe?
3 years ago
• Franziska
How to calculate curve radius on horizontal directional drill?
3 years ago
• jan
How to calculate the length of a directional bore for certain depths?
3 years ago
• sara
How to plot the profile of a hdd bore?
3 years ago
• Matti Isomets
What is maximum curvature of 6" directional bore?
3 years ago
• Hilda Burrows
How to design a horizontal drill for gas pipeline?
3 years ago
• flambard
How to build the curve on directional drilling?
3 years ago
• ralph
What is the bend radius for .375 wall steel pipe for hdd bore?
3 years ago
• yerusalem
How to calculate how much drill mud required for HDD?
3 years ago
• jali
How to find three joint radius in directionsl drilling?
3 years ago
• Lisa
What is the maximum angle a directional boring machine can bore?
3 years ago
• angelica
How to figure radius of bore pipe?
3 years ago
• anya hunter
Can directional boring be done with bends?
3 years ago
• alvaro
What is the maximum length of horizontal drilling pipe?
3 years ago
• jonna
What is the recommended bending radius when drilling horizontal well?
2 years ago
• Algisa Sagese
How to calculate bore path?
2 years ago
• marie ebersbacher
How to calculate turning radius of a petroleum well?
2 years ago
• Jonathan Gonzalez
What is maximumslope a 24" steel gas line can be hdd into ground?
2 years ago
• JUUSO
What determines the bend radius parameters on steel pipeline design?
2 years ago
• juliane
How to calculate the curve radius for horizontal directional drilling?
2 years ago
• Goytiom Nasih
How to get bend radius of a horizontal bore drilling?
2 years ago
• rose
How to prevent bending rods while boring?
2 years ago
• Proserpio
How to calculate radius of curvature of a hole?
2 years ago
• doris
HOW TO CALCULATE 3 JOINT RADIUS?
2 years ago
• LANFRANCO
How to oil well pipe bend at the curve?
2 years ago
• brigitte blau
Can you bend horizontal and vertical with directional bore?
2 years ago
• Ebony
What is the pitch on a 12in HDPE directional bore?
2 years ago
• janne
What is the standard maximum length of a directional bore?
2 years ago
• violanda costa
What is the minimum radius on a directional bore?
2 years ago
• sabine
How to design a horizontal directional drill?
2 years ago
• huriyyah
HOW TIGHT OF A RADIUS CAN YOU DIRECTIONALLY BORE?
2 years ago
• Anita
How to calculate hdd setback?
2 years ago
• crispino
What is the tightest radius of a directional bore with 3 inch rods?
2 years ago
• moro
Can HDD turn 90 degree horizontal direction?
2 years ago
• enza
Can you make a bend with directional drilling ?
2 years ago
• YORDA
Can you directional bore curves?
2 years ago
• goytiom
How do I calculate the minimum bend radius for a steel Horizontal Direction Drill?
2 years ago
• Emppu
How to calculate drill entry angle?
2 years ago
• ARCANGELA
How we calculate the radius of curvature of a bore plan?
2 years ago
• beniamino
How to calculate a bore profile?
2 years ago
• DOROTHY HOLLINS
How to calculate mud generated hdd?
2 years ago
• Hamfast Gardner
What is the maximum vertical curvature during pipe pullback?
2 years ago
• tranquilla
How to ground hdd bore machines?
2 years ago
• dehab
What is the minimum radius of a horizontal directional drill for a gas line?
2 years ago
• kristin
Can HDD pipe turn horizontally?
2 years ago
• annie
What is the recommended tightest radius for 90 degree duct?
2 years ago
• hannu
How to check radius of direction drill?
2 years ago
How to locate for directional boring?
2 years ago
• nicole
What does min bend radius 70 for boring machine mean?
2 years ago
• Stefania Russo
How to calculate bend radius in 10 feet for directional drilling?
2 years ago
• jenson
What is the maximum deflection for horizontal directional drill hdpe pipe?
2 years ago
• segan samuel
What length is maximum horizontal fracking?
2 years ago
• Liviano
What is the rule.of thumb for.bending steel pipe in a hdd?
2 years ago
• ALGISO
What do numbers mean on vermeer boring machine?
1 year ago
• Paula
HOW TO FIGURE PIPE LINKS FOR DIRECTIONAL BORE?
1 year ago
• gerda
How to determine horizontal directional drilling depth?
1 year ago
• caoimhe milne
Why did directional bore hdpe pipe failure?
1 year ago
• Lennon
How to build a bore profile?
1 year ago
• Bellisima
How to figure bend radii for cold rolled steel?
1 year ago
• estella
How do you calculate allowable bend radius for an HDD?
1 year ago
• Bungo
What is the max length you can drill with a directional boring machine?
1 year ago
Can you bore 45 degree bends?
1 year ago
• Sally
How determine radius from bore?
1 year ago
• atte
How to calculate running rod tension in an oil well?
1 year ago
• MACARIO
How to calculate setback distance for directional drill?
1 year ago
• tanta
How to calculate and plot pipeline profile?
1 year ago
• annikki holappa
What is the max degrees you can bend the drill steel on a 33 44 vermeer hdd?
12 months ago
• Brian Brown
What is rule for free stress bends in HDD method of installation?
11 months ago
• yrj
What bends the pipe during directional Drilling?
11 months ago
• Lea
Can directional drilling turn angles?
10 months ago
• Jenni
What is the smallest radius that you can bore underground?
9 months ago
• asmait
What does 6R mean for radius of curvature in pipelines?
8 months ago
• Tanja
Can HDD equipment accomodate horizontal curves?
8 months ago
• Fulvus Lothran
How tight of radius can horizontal drilling do?
8 months ago
• nils
How to ccalculate rradius of ccurvature of 12 inch diameter pipe?
8 months ago
• RENZO LI FONTI
What determines drilling rod length bore?
7 months ago
• dina
What is the maximum radius for directional boring rods?
7 months ago
• Fre-Swera
What is a 53.75 inch turn radius?
6 months ago
• dan
How to check Radius of curvature of pipe?
6 months ago
• laura hornblower
How to figure out drilling radius?
6 months ago
• marta toscani
What is the pitch in hdd method of boring?
6 months ago
• swen
What is the turn radius for an 8 inch pipe?
6 months ago
• brigitte
How do you calculate bore in a bend?
5 months ago
• george griggs
Can bores turn horizontally?
4 months ago
• thomas
How to design hdd bore pipeline crossing?
4 months ago
• Quinzia
How to determine curvature of 6" pipe?
4 months ago
• jan
Can you directional drill steel pipe?
4 months ago
• MARK
How to create a HDD bore profile?
4 months ago
• timo
What isnpitch in hdd profile?
3 months ago