Important Information Concerning Use Of Asbestos Or Alternative Materials

Asbestos is specified or referenced for certain components of the equipment described in some API standards. It has been of great usefulness in minimizing fire hazards associated with petroleum processing. It has also been a universal sealing material, compatible with most petroleum fluid services. Certain serious adverse health effects are associated with asbestos, among them the serious and often fatal diseases of lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma (a cancer of the chest and abdominal...

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Fig. 54 (above) Internally Corroded 51 4-in. Casing Fig. 54 (above) Internally Corroded 51 4-in. Casing Fig. 55 (above) External Tubing Corrosion Fig. 55 (above) External Tubing Corrosion Fig. 56 (left) Sour Pitting of Sucker Rod API TITLE VT-2 TO W 07322T0 OOTSbS 7 26 Corrosion of Oil- and Gas-well Equipment Fig. 57 (above) Pitting of Sucker Rod in Sour Service Fig. 60 (above) Top Rod Was 3' 2-percent Nickel Steel, Lower Rod a Low-alloy Pearlitic Rod Despite the greater pitting, the pearlitic...

General aspects of corrosion

The useful life of oilfield equipment is often shortened as a result of corrosion. In the last several years great strides have been made in corrosion detection and remedies as applied to the oilfield. This book has been written to put this information in a form easy to use. In simplified technical terms, corrosion has been defined as the destruction of a metal by either chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Some general statements concerning corrosion rates can be briefly...

Sweet corrosion

Ringworm Corrosion

Until recent years, the term sour crude was used by production personnel to designate corrosive fluid, and the term sweet crude designated noncorrosive fluid. Inasmuch as many of the wells that were previously considered noncorrosive because of the absence of hydrogen sulfide have become corrosive, this distinction has lost most of its accepted meaning. Sweet corrosion, as used here, can be defined as corrosion occurring in oil or gas wells where no iron sulfide corrosion product and no odor of...

Corrosion Coupon

Corrosion Oil Pipelines

Fig. 21 Corrosion-Erosion of Coupling Fig. 22 Corrosion-Erosion of Alloy Rod Fig. 22 Corrosion-Erosion of Alloy Rod Though the iron content of condensate waters varies widely, a survey by the NGAA gave an average of 310 ppm for corrosive wells and 125 ppm for noncorrosive wells. In practice, many corrosive wells have as little as 100 ppm iron. It has been possible to reduce iron content of corrosive wells to as low as 10 to 25 ppm by effective inhibition. In oil wells, iron content of corrosive...

Sour Corrosion

H2s Corrosion Pits

A large percentage of the wells in this country are producing hydrogen sulfide and many are corrosive. In the absence of protective measures, hydrogen sulfide corrosion in these corrosive sour wells costs hundreds of dollars per well per month for equipment failure. This figure varies, of course, depending upon individual well conditions. There are records of this type of corrosion costing in the thousand dollar range per well per month. From these figures it can be readily seen that the cost...

Production Tubing

Fig. 46 Bottom-hole -Bypass Chemical Injection Valve Fig. 46 Bottom-hole -Bypass Chemical Injection Valve API TITLE VT-2 SO 07322S0 DORSbEB T 22 Corrosion of Oil- and Gas-well Equipment d. Injection Valve. A bypass chemical injector valve Fig. 46 is run in the tubing string just above the packer. The annulus is filled with inhibitor and pressure applied on the annulus forces the inhibitor through this valve into the tubing. 3. Squeeze Method. Inject large quantities of inhibitor down the tubing...