Drilling Fluid Contamination Test

Introduction

In preparing a bentonite slurry using fresh water, the bentonite will hydrate and agitation furnished by a mixer is sufficient to separate the hydrated clay plate lets and result in a viscosity and gel strength increase, if the bentonite is placed in salty water or water containing dissolved hardness (calcium or magnesium) the hydration and subsequent dispersion by agitation is reduced.

The question arises, what occurs when salt or hardness is added to a dispersed bentonite drilling fluid and what is necessary to return the slurry to an acceptable condition for drilling?

In this test we will study the effect of contamination of monovalent chemicals (NaCl and KCl) and divalent chemicals that cause contamination are calcium sulfate (CaSO4), cement (Ca (OH2), and Gypsum (CaSO4 - 2H2O). These soluble salts are commonly encountered during drilling, completion or workover operations.

TEST PROCEDURE FOR MUD CONTAMINATION

  1. Test base mud for weight ppg, plastic viscosity cp, apparent viscosity c.p., yield point lb/100 ft2.
  2. Add to 400 ml base mud, 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams NaCl and repeat step (1) after each addition (stir every time).
  3. Add to a new 400 ml base mud 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams Gypsum (CaSO4 - 2H2O) and repeat step (1) after each addition (stir every time).
  4. Add to a new 400 ml base mud 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams anhydrite (CaSO4) and repeat step (1) after each addition (stir every time).
  5. Report the results in a convenient table for the three contaminants and plot in three different plots the effect of contamination with salt, gypsum and anhydrite on mud density and viscosities and yield point.

TREATMENT OF THE CONTAMINATED DRILLING FLUID

(A) SALT CONTAMINATION:

Test Procedure

  1. Test 525 ml of the base mud sample for weight ppg, viscosity cp, yield point lb/100 ft2 and pH.
  2. Add 27 ml of 10% by wt salt water (NaCl) to the base mud sample (525 ml) stir 2 minutes after adding salt. Age for about 15 minutes and stir again for 2 minutes. Determine its viscosity, density and pH.
  3. Add to the contaminated sample 1/2 cc increments until the original viscosity is restored.
  4. Continue to add (SAPP) in 1/2 cc increments until the original viscosity is restored.
  5. Plot the result on a curve showing the viscosity and pH as a function of (SAPP) concentration.

(B) GYPSUM CONTAMINATION:

Test Procedure

  1. Repeat step No. 1 in (A).
  2. Contaminate the base mud by (525 ml) with 6 gr of Gypsum, stir for 3 minutes. Age the sample for 15 minutes and stir again for 2 - 3 minutes. Determine the viscosity cp and density ppg and pH.
  3. Add 3 gr soda ash (Na2CO3) to remove the hardness from sample in step # 2. Stir for 10 minutes and test.
  4. Add 4 gr Carbonox and 1 gr of Caustic Soda to sample in step # 3. Stir 10 minutes and test.
  5. Add 4 gr Gypsum to a 525 ml sample of base mud and stir 10 minutes and add 5 gr Q-Broxin and 3/4 of Caustic Soda. Stir 10 minutes and test.

(C) CEMENT CONTAMINATION:

Test Procedure

  1. Repeat Step No. 1 in (A).
  2. Contaminant the base mud (525 ml) by 1.0 PPB and stir for two minutes. Age for 15 minutes. Stir and test.
  3. Add to the contaminated sample 1/2 cc (SAPP).
  4. Continue to add SAPP in 1/2 cc increments until the original viscosity is restored measure pH every time.
  5. Plot the result on a curve showing the viscosity and pH as function of (SAPP) concentration.
  6. Add to the base mud 1.5 cc (SAPP) and 1.0 Sodium Bicarbonate and stir for 10 minutes.
  7. Add 1.0 gr of cement while mixing the sample after aging and test.

Experimental Results

Tabulate all results in the appropriate table and present graphs where necessary.

  1. Would it be better to treat the mud before or after cement contamination? Discuss this question using your experimentally obtained data.
  2. Discuss and compare the effectiveness of various materials in treating contaminated muds.
  3. Did the CARBONEX treated Gypsum contaminated mud or the Q-BROXIN treated Gypsum contaminated mud exhibit better flow properties? State why?

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Responses

  • amanuel
    What is the effect of salt contamination on mud?
    9 years ago
  • Orlando
    Did the CARBONEX treated Gypsum contaminated mud or?
    9 years ago
  • ortensia
    What are the effects of gypsum in drilling mud?
    8 years ago
  • marco
    What are the effects of adding gypsum to drilling mud?
    8 years ago
  • David
    When gypsum is added to mud, what happen to the ph of drilling mud?
    7 years ago
  • Athos Giordano
    What happens when more gypsum is added to drilling fluid?
    5 years ago
  • mario bosch
    What occurs when salt or hardness is added to a dispersed bentonite drilling fluid?
    4 years ago
  • Hagosa
    Why does a bentonite hydrate and. agitate when placed in salty water?
    4 years ago
  • thorsten
    What is necessary to return the slurry to an acceptable condition for drilling?
    4 years ago
  • mika-matti
    Did the carbonex treated gypsum contamination?
    4 years ago
  • robert
    How do i test for salt contaminated drilling mud?
    4 years ago
  • fesahaye
    What occurs when salt or hardness is added to a dispersed bentonite driling fluid?
    3 years ago
  • annukka
    What are the substances that cause drilling fluid contamination?
    2 years ago
  • kimberly patterson
    How to plot a graph of mud density vs nacl?
    1 year ago
  • Phillipp
    How high can total hardness be in drilling mud?
    1 year ago
  • yonatan
    How to treat total hardness from completion fluid?
    12 months ago

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