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The most widely used techniques for drilling are based on mechanical methods that apply stresses to exceed the rock tensile or shear strength, causing brittle failure or plastic yielding. In rotary drilling, the most widely used method, a cutter cuts or Figure 1.6 Typical stress-strain curve of a rock under loading. Figure 1.6 Typical stress-strain curve of a rock under loading. shears the drilled rock. On the other hand, in the case of percussive techniques, repeated impacts produce finely...

Principles of Drilling and Excavation

Dusseault, Emmanuel Detournay, Bradley J. Thomson, and Kris Zacny Predicting the performance of drills requires analytical capabilities that account for the tool's characteristics, rock properties and behavior, the temperature, and other parameters. Also, it necessitates understanding the effect of the applied forces, details of the bit, and the interaction with the drilled rock. This chapter covers the principles of drilling and excavation, both analytically and...

Seafloor Drilling

5.2.1 Exploration and Production Drill Ship 320 5.2.3 Semi-Submersible Drilling 322 5.4.1 Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) 323 5.4.2 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) 325 5.5 Remotely Controlled Robotic Seafloor Drilling 328 5.5.1 Robotic Drilling Techniques - Rod Drilling 320 5.5.2 Robotic Drilling Techniques - Wireline Drilling 325 5.5.3 Robotic Drilling Systems 328 5.8 Conclusion 343 References 344

Planetary Sample Handling and Processing

Kris Zacny, Antonio Diaz-Calderon, Paul G. Backes, Kiel Davis, Chris Leger, Erik Mumm, Edward Tunstel, Jason Herman, Gale Paulsen, and Yoseph Bar-Cohen 7.1.2 Comminution Requirements for Planetary Applications 562 7.2.1 Background to Comminution 564 7.2.2 Theory of Rock Breaking 565 7.2.3 Energy Requirements in Breaking Rock 567 7.2.4 Analysis of Broken Material 568 7.2.5 Sample Caking During Grinding 571 7.2.7 Hardness of Material vs Hardness of Crushing Grinding Surfaces 573 7.3...

Drills as Tools for Media Penetration and Sampling

1.1 Introduction and Historical Perspective 1 1.2 Methods of Drilling and Penetration of Objects 9 1.3 Types of Mechanical Drills 14 1.4 Bits - the End-Effector of Drills 15 1.4.3 Centering and Spotting Drill Bits 17 1.4.4 Material Makeup of Bits 18 1.5 Application of Drilling Techniques 19 1.5.1 Geological Studies and Search for Resources 19 1.5.3 Petroleum and Gas Drilling and Exploration 21 1.5.4 Ocean and Seafloor Drilling 23 1.5.5 Planetary Drilling and Sampling 23 1.6 Conclusion 27...

Ice Drilling and Coring

Koci, LaurentJ.-M. Augustin, Robin J. Bolsey, James A. Green, Jay D. Kyne, Donald A. Lebar, William P. Mason, Alexander J. Shturmakov, Hermann F. Engelhardt, William D. Harrison, Michael H. Hecht, and Victor Zagorodnov 4.2.1 Surface-Driven Rotary Drills 224 4.2.3 Cable-Suspended Electromechanical Drills 226 4.2.4 Cable-Suspended Electrothermal Drills 248 4.2.6 Koci Drill for Debris-Laden Ice 259 4.3.1 Hot-Water Drilling Systems 262 4.3.5 Electrochaude 284 4.3.6...

Instruments for In Situ Sample Analysis

Beegle, Sabrina Feldman, Paul V. Johnson, and Christopher B. Dreyer 8.2 Instrument Design Considerations 652 8.4.1 Imaging and Spectroscopic Instruments 657 8.5 Mineralogy Identification 666 8.5.1 Mossbauer Spectroscopy 666 8.5.2 Spectrometers UV VIS, Near-IR, Mid-IR, Far-IR, etc. 667 8.5.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry 669 8.5.5 Powder X-Ray Diffraction 672 8.5.6 Contact X-Ray Diffraction 673 8.6.2 Ion- Selective Electrodes, pH, and Redox Meters 677 8.6.4 Gas Chromatography Mass...

Preface

Drilling, which is an act of penetrating solid media, is a well-established technology and there are many commercial tools that are available for this purpose. One might wonder what else needs to be developed that is not known or made. Well, most of the developments are driven by few basic principles which are linked to cost reductions and making a profit. The new technology tries to make drilling processes faster and cheaper and also safer by removing humans from the loop. In some cases, such...

Color Plates

Inchworm Deep Drilling System

Figure 1.7 The principal strain profile at various times after impact of a drilling bit and a coring bit Bao et al., 2003 . This figure also appears on page 11. Figure 1.16 Petroleum drill bits are produced in various shapes depending on the formation that needs to be penetrated. From left to right surface set diamond bit PDC bit tungsten carbide tricone bit and tricone milled tooth bit with different teeth shapes and sizes. This figure also appears on page 22. Figure 1.16 Petroleum drill bits...

Chapter

Brian Tarr, Deepwater Well Technology, Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX. Lou Capuano, Chief Executive, Thermasource, Santa Rosa, CA. Sam Abraham, Geothermal Resource Group Inc., Palm Desert, CA. William M Rickard, President, Geothermal Resource Group Inc., Palm Desert, CA. Doug Blankenship and his group, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Roy Long, E amp P Technology Manager, Strategic Center for Natural Gas amp Oil, DOE National Energy Technology...

Extraterrestrial Drilling and Excavation

Kris Zacny, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Kiel Davis, Pierre Coste, Gale Paulsen, Stewart Sherrit, Jeffrey George, Brian Derkowski, Steve Gorevan, Dale Boucher, Jose Guerrero, Takashi Kubota, Bradley J. Thomson, Scott Stanley, Peter Thomas, Nicholas Lan, Christopher McKay, Tullis C. Onstot, Carol Stoker, Brian Glass, Sachiko Wakabayashi, Lyle Whyte, Gianfranco Visentin, Edoardo Re, Lutz Richter, Mircea Badescu, Xiaoqi Bao, Roger Fincher, Takeshi Hoshino, Piergiovanni Magnani, and Carlo Menon 6.1 Why...

Ab

Figure 1.18 Drilling ice at Lake Vida, Antarctica, using the ultrasonic sonic gopher. Figure 1.18 Drilling ice at Lake Vida, Antarctica, using the ultrasonic sonic gopher. Figure 1.19 Dental drills are used to remove decayed tooth material. Courtesy Alan Grant, Dentist, Long Beach, CA. Figure 1.19 Dental drills are used to remove decayed tooth material. Courtesy Alan Grant, Dentist, Long Beach, CA. century. These improvements led to the modern dental drills that work more quickly and accurately...

Foreword

The adjective ''extreme,'' even as used in the title of this book, Drilling in Extreme Environments by Yoseph Bar-Cohen and Kris Zacny, must be considered a relative term With improvements in technology and the passage of time, what was once considered to be extreme becomes ordinary. For example, the Chinese routinely drilled into the earth to depths of 1000m or more centuries before the Europeans even dreamed about such a capability. Nowadays, world-wide drillers reach to depths of thousands...

Introduction and Historical Perspective

Kola Well Sg3

Drilling and excavation are widely applied for many purposes, including making a hole in a wall, deep drilling in the search for oil and exploration of the Earth's subsurface Clark, 1987 . Most of what we have learned about early climates of planet Earth e.g., ice ages was obtained from cores taken by drilling through ice sheets and glaciers e.g., Dansgaard, 2004 . Increasingly, developers of drills are addressing complex challenges in extreme environments, for example penetrating the surface...