Color Plates

8 mm

Figure 1.7 The principal strain profile at various times after impact of a drilling bit and a coring bit (Bao et al., 2003). (This figure also appears on page 11.)

Figure 1.16 Petroleum drill bits are produced in various shapes depending on the formation that needs to be penetrated. From left to right: surface set diamond bit; PDC bit; tungsten carbide tricone bit; and tricone milled tooth bit with different teeth shapes and sizes. (This figure also appears on page 22.)

Figure 1.16 Petroleum drill bits are produced in various shapes depending on the formation that needs to be penetrated. From left to right: surface set diamond bit; PDC bit; tungsten carbide tricone bit; and tricone milled tooth bit with different teeth shapes and sizes. (This figure also appears on page 22.)

Figure 2.6 Mounted test specimen and a cross-section of a triaxial cell. (This figure also appears on page 45.)
Figure 2.17 Some stress definitions commonly used in petroleum geomechanics. (This figure also appears on page 66.)
Figure 2.21 Use of borehole wall imaging methods to determine stress orientations. Here, a formation micro-resistivity imaging log is used to identify breakouts and fractures. (This figure also appears on page 70.)

Reverse or thrust fault

Hydraulic fracture orientations in each stress regime indicated by colored planes. Displacements are indicated by the flat-lying bed offsets and arrows.

Figure 2.23 Stress regimes, characteristic fault orientations, typical hydraulic fracture orientations. (This figure also appears on page 71.)

Figure 2.23 Stress regimes, characteristic fault orientations, typical hydraulic fracture orientations. (This figure also appears on page 71.)

Figure 2.33 Stresses in a compressive foreland basin. Near the mountains, a1is normal to the strikes of the thrust faults, and may be ah max for great depths. Away from the mountains, compressive strain effects persist, but less so than near the disturbed belt. Blue line is oh max, red line is Shmin. (This figure also appears on page 81.)

Figure 2.33 Stresses in a compressive foreland basin. Near the mountains, a1is normal to the strikes of the thrust faults, and may be ah max for great depths. Away from the mountains, compressive strain effects persist, but less so than near the disturbed belt. Blue line is oh max, red line is Shmin. (This figure also appears on page 81.)

Figure 2.38 Rock deformation around a borehole when (a) isotropic loading (s'h max = sh min) and (b) anisotropic loading (s'hmax>shmin). (This figure also appears on page 87.)
Isotropy Rocks
Figure 2.41 Percussion hammer seismic. After Pixton and Hall (2002). (This figure also appears on page 91.)

Figure 2.43 Schematic representation of test setup for single-impact tests (Han, Bruno and Grant, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 93.)

Before Impact After Im pact

Figure 2.43 Schematic representation of test setup for single-impact tests (Han, Bruno and Grant, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 93.)

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Figure 2.48 Vertical compressive stress during bit-rock impact (unit: Pa) (Han and Bruno, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 98.)

■ Indention Depth

Figure 2.48 Vertical compressive stress during bit-rock impact (unit: Pa) (Han and Bruno, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 98.)

Tricone Bit Schematics
Figure 2.49 Vertical strain during bit-rock impact (Han and Bruno, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 99.)

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Plastic Shear Strain

Figure 2.50 Plastic shear strain during bit-rock impact (Han and Bruno, 2006). (This figure also appears on page 100.)

Figure 4.20 Typical DISC drill control screen depiction of a coring run. The figure shows from the start ofthe run (when the drill is at the bottom ofthe hole, ready to cut ice) to the end ofthe cutting, but not the core break. The abscissa is the time axis: one division is 90s. On the ordinate there is a specific scale for each quantity. (1) Orange-yellowish: cutting motor torque, from 0 to 10 N m; one division is 1.25 N m. (2) Purple: pump motor torque, from 0 to 10 N m; one division is 1.25 Nm (3) Red: cable payout, increasing downward from 0 to 4 m (value on abscissa); one division is 0.5 m. (4) Blue: weight on bit (WOB), from —2500 N (value on abscissa) to + 2500 N; one division is 625 N. (5) Green: cable tension, from 0 to 5000 N; one division is 625 N. (This figure also appears on page 243.)

Figure 4.20 Typical DISC drill control screen depiction of a coring run. The figure shows from the start ofthe run (when the drill is at the bottom ofthe hole, ready to cut ice) to the end ofthe cutting, but not the core break. The abscissa is the time axis: one division is 90s. On the ordinate there is a specific scale for each quantity. (1) Orange-yellowish: cutting motor torque, from 0 to 10 N m; one division is 1.25 N m. (2) Purple: pump motor torque, from 0 to 10 N m; one division is 1.25 Nm (3) Red: cable payout, increasing downward from 0 to 4 m (value on abscissa); one division is 0.5 m. (4) Blue: weight on bit (WOB), from —2500 N (value on abscissa) to + 2500 N; one division is 625 N. (5) Green: cable tension, from 0 to 5000 N; one division is 625 N. (This figure also appears on page 243.)

Figure 4.47 Igniting the Browning flame jet. Photograph by B.R. Koci. (This figure also appears on page 283.)
Figure 5.9 Remote Control and Monitoring Display of the BMS robotic drilling system. Courtesy Williamson & Associates, Inc. (This figure also appears on page 319.)
Figure 5.10 Plot of robotic drilling parameters (PROD). Courtesy Benthic Geotech. (This figure also appears on page 320.)

0.0 Î1fÎ1?Tr~ï"ÎTÎ': TT ; ï i : . , i I I n I ■ i n J I M M I I I J M I I M I

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 60 70 80 90 100 Sample length/hole depth (m)

Figure 5.14 Tool handling actions vs hole depth. (This figure also appears on page 323.)

Figure 5.30 Sequence showing the tripping of a gravity corer. Courtesy Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (This figure also appears on page 339.)
0 z70 1b0 90 0

West Longilurte

Figure 6.1 Crustal magnetism, crater distribution and ground ice on Mars. Each green dot represents a craterwith diameter greater than 15 km. The boundary between the smooth northern plains and the cratered southern highlands is shown with a green line. The crustal magnetism is shown as red for positive and blue for negative. Full scale is 1500 nT. The typical strength of the Earth's magnetic field at the surface is 50000 nT. The solid blue lines show the extent of near surface ground ice as determined by the Odyssey mission. Ground ice is present nearthe surface poleward ofthese lines. Crater morphology indicates deep ground ice poleward of 30° (Squyres, Wilhelms and Moosman, 1987), shown here by dark blue lines and arrows. The region between 60 and 80°S at 180°W is heavily cratered, preserves crustal magnetism, and has ground ice present. This is a possible target site for deep drilling to meet astrobiology goals. Adapted from Smith and McKay (2007). (This figure also appears on page 351.)

Figure 6.3 Rock corer grinder (RCG). (a) RCG in the Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) on Beagle 2 arm; (b) RCG mechanism, showing coring halves. Courtesy HKPU and Beagle 2 team. (This figure also appears on page 356.)

Discharged Regolith

Aboveground Station

Drilling Robot

0 100mm

Power Supply & Communication

; 200mm

Figure 6.19 Concept of drilling robot system. Courtesy JAXA. (This figure also appears on page 374.)

Figure6.44 Test No. 2 into granite: hole and sample. (a) Granite hole with powder. The sample was removed and placed on the blue sheet. (b) Granite hole with powder removed. Courtesy ESA and Galileo Avionica. (This figure also appears on page 398.)
Figure 6.60 Near-Earth asteroid sampling system. (a) Sampling principle; (b) conceptual corertool; (c) robotic arm; (d) sample transfer operations to the Earth re-entry capsule. Courtesy ESA and Galileo Avionica. (This figure also appears on page 416.)
Figure 6.67 RESOLVE Sample Acquisition and Preprocessing System (EBRC) in drilling mode. Courtesy NORCAT. (This figure also appears on page 425.)
Inchworm Deep Drilling System
Figure 6.104 Subsurface stratigraphy inferred from coring and drilling using the DAME drill during the 2006 test in the Haughton Crater on Devon Island, Arctic. Courtesy Honeybee Robotics. (This figure also appears on page 466.)
Figure 6.105 The DAME drill telemetry. Total torque, auger torque, and bit torque versus depth. (This figure also appears on page 468.)
Figure 6.124 Inchworm Deep Drilling System (IDDS) operational sequence. Courtesy Honeybee Robotics. (This figure also appears on page 491.)
Figure 6.137 (a) Retrieval of RCG from brick after 15 minutes coring and (b) holes made by RCG in hard igneous rock. Courtesy HKPU, DLR, and Beagle 2 team. (This figure also appears on page 503.)
Figure 6.149 Descending system based on earth-worm locomotion. (This figure also appears on page 516.)
Figure 6.160 McGill Axel-Heiberg Research Station. Gypsum Hill is perennial saline spring with CH4 gas bubbles. (This figure also appears on page 531.)

Motor

Figure 7.49 Schematics of the MeSH crusher subsystems. (This figure also appears on page 613.)

Motor

Figure 7.49 Schematics of the MeSH crusher subsystems. (This figure also appears on page 613.)

Figure 7.50 Components of the MeSH sieving subsystem. (This figure also appears on page 614.)
Figure 7.57 Workspace of the elbow manipulator. Courtesy JPL/Caltech/NASA. (This figure also appears on page 626.)

Figure 8.5 (left) Schematic diagram ofCheMin diffraction geometry forthe terrestrial CheMin. (right top) 1-D diffractogram generated from a 2-D XRD pattern (magenta at top). (right bottom) Fluorescence X-rays from the same sample. The CheMin on MSL does not have the requirement to perform XRF, but will return XRF histograms in addition to X-ray diffractograms. Image courtesy D. Blake, NASA Ames. (This figure also appears on page 673.)

Figure 8.5 (left) Schematic diagram ofCheMin diffraction geometry forthe terrestrial CheMin. (right top) 1-D diffractogram generated from a 2-D XRD pattern (magenta at top). (right bottom) Fluorescence X-rays from the same sample. The CheMin on MSL does not have the requirement to perform XRF, but will return XRF histograms in addition to X-ray diffractograms. Image courtesy D. Blake, NASA Ames. (This figure also appears on page 673.)

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