Planetary Sample Handling and Processing

Kris Zacny, Antonio Diaz-Calderon, Paul G. Backes, Kiel Davis, Chris Leger, Erik Mumm, Edward Tunstel, Jason Herman, Gale Paulsen, and Yoseph Bar-Cohen

  1. 1 Introduction 559
  2. 1.1 Why Sampling? 559
  3. 1.2 Comminution Requirements for Planetary Applications 562
  4. 2 Comminution 564
  5. 2.1 Background to Comminution 564
  6. 2.2 Theory of Rock Breaking 565
  7. 2.3 Energy Requirements in Breaking Rock 567
  8. 2.4 Analysis of Broken Material 568
  9. 2.5 Sample Caking During Grinding 571
  10. 2.6 Cryo Grinding 572
  11. 2.7 Hardness of Material vs Hardness of Crushing/Grinding Surfaces 573
  12. 3 Classification of Comminution Equipment 573
  13. 3.1 Classification According to Size of the Product 574
  14. 3.2 Classification According to Comminution Process 574
  15. 4 Nipping (Compression) Machines 574
  16. 4.1 Jaw Crushers 575
  17. 4.2 Gyratory and Cone Crushers 576
  18. 4.3 Roll Crusher 577
  19. 5 Impact Machines 578 7.5.1 Rotary Hammer 580
  20. 5.2 Vertical Shaft Impactor 580
  21. 5.3 Pin Mill 580
  22. 5.4 Stamp Mill 580
  23. 5.5 Vibration Mill 581
  24. 5.6 Planetary Mill 582
  25. 5.7 Cryogenic/Magnetic Hammer Mill 582
  26. 6 Tumbling Mills 583
  27. 6.1 Rod Mills 583
  28. 6.2 Ball Mills 583
  29. 6.3 Autogenous and Semi-Autogenous Mills 584
  30. 7 Cutting Machines 585
  31. 7.1 Knives, Shears, and Wedges 585
  32. 7.2 Saws 585
  33. 8 Attrition Machines 585
  34. 8.1 Disk Attrition Mills 586
  35. 8.2 Buhrstone 586
  36. 8.3 Mortar and Pestle Mill 587
  37. 8.4 Swing Mill 587
  38. 8.5 Disk Mill (or Colloid Mill) 588
  39. 8.6 Petit Pulverizer 589
  40. 9 Other Methods of Comminution 589
  41. 9.1 Abrasion 589
  42. 9.2 Thermal Comminution 590
  43. 9.3 Electrical Comminution 590
  44. 9.4 Microwave Comminution 590
  45. 9.5 Ultrasonic Comminution 590
  46. 9.6 Explosion 591
  47. 10 Selection of Comminution Equipment for Planetary Sampling 591
  48. 10.1 Single-Stage Comminution 591
  49. 10.2 Double-Stage Comminution 594
  50. 10.3 New Technologies and Innovations 595
  51. 11 Review of Recent and Current Work on Comminution for Planetary Sampling 595
  52. 11.1 Jaw Crusher 595
  53. 11.2 Sample Processing Unit (SPU) 596
  54. 11.3 Mechanized Sample Handler (MeSH): an Integrated Sample Crushing, Sieving, and Distribution System 600
  55. 12 Operational Platforms 620
  56. 12.1 Stationary Platforms 621
  57. 12.2 Mobile Platforms 621
  58. 13 Appendages 624 7.13.1 Manipulators 624
  59. 14 Sample Acquisition from Surface Platforms 628 7.14.1 Terrain Sensing Techniques 628
  60. 15 Sample Acquisition from Aerial Platforms 632
  61. 15.1 Small-Body Sampling from Spacecraft 633
  62. 15.2 Sampling from Aerobots 635
  63. 16 Conclusion 636 References 638
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