Completion Fluid Types

  • Water-Based Fluids - Drilling muds which contain solids have been modified to be used as completion fluids. Water-based fluids have been used because they are relatively economical, easily maintained, and available. Unless the well is perforated under-balanced and then placed on flowing production, modified drilling muds should be avoided during completion operations, since mud solids can cause permanent formation damage. Barite, for example, a common mud additive used to increase fluid density, is a very damaging solid, as is very difficult to remove chemically.
  • Oil-Based Fluids - These fluids are generally selected to protect water-sensitive clays against chemical formation damage. Oil-based fluids contain varying amounts of both dissolved and suspended solids. These solids can plug formation pores, form a precipitate, or settle over time. These fluids are less damaging and more expensive than water-based muds, but are often more damaging than solids-free completion fluids.
  • Clear Brine Fluids - Today, most completion fluids are designed to be solids-free or with a minimum amount of solids. To achieve the higher density fluid for deeper, more hostile environments, clear brines have been formulated using inorganic salts. These solids-free clear brines can minimize formation damage yet control reservoir pressures. Densities can range from 8.5 to 19.2 lb/gal. Higher density brines require special handling. Excessive corrosion and fluid crystallization must also be considered with the use of these fluids.
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    What types of completion fluids are there?
    5 years ago

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