Waste Management and Disposal

The drilling-fluid program should address environmental issues concerned with the discharge of drilling fluid, products, and removed solids. Personnel managing the solids-separation equipment must be very familiar with this part of the drilling-fluid program and have a good understanding of governmental regulations and operator requirements. Many drilling operations have strategies in place for drilling-fluid recovery and will have established some general guidelines for the disposal of materials classified as waste. However, situations can arise that present the engineer managing the solids-control equipment with the issue of whether to discard or recycle some types of waste and how to do it. If disposal costs are not a factor, then all waste can be disposed of and treated, if necessary, onsite or sent to a processor offsite. However, if it is possible to recycle some of the products to the mud system, it may prove economical to do so [Hollier et al\. Table 2.4 contains some general guidelines approved in the state of Texas for recycling and disposing of waste from a drilling operation. Definitions used in those guidelines for hazardous, class 1, class 2, and class 3 wastes are given below. Solid waste is classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency if it meets any of the following four conditions:

  • The waste exhibits ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
  • The waste is specifically listed as being hazardous in one of the four tables of 40 CFR 261: [Code of Federal Regulations]
  1. Hazardous wastes from nonspecific sources (40 CFR 261.31)
  2. Hazardous wastes from specific sources (40 CFR 261.32)
  3. Acute hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.33(e))
  4. Toxic hazardous wastes (40 CFR 261.33(f)).
  • The waste is a mixture of a listed hazardous waste and a nonhazardous waste.
  • The waste has been declared to be hazardous by the generator.

Class 1 waste is any material that, because of its concentration or physicochemical characteristics, is considered ''toxic, corrosive, flammable, a strong sensitizer or irritant, a generator of sudden pressure by decomposition, heat or other means, or may pose a substantial present or potential danger to human health or the environment when

Table 2.4 Waste Recycle/Disposal Guidelines

Recycle / Disposal

Class

Acids (undiluted) Acids (spent, except hydrofluoric acid)

Barite, finished or crude Bentonite clays and test fluids Biocides Bleach

Brines, high-density, new Brines, high-density, used Brine/oil mixtures

(emulsion testing, etc.) Broken glass Buffer solution

Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride (solid) Calcium chloride (solution)

Chemical spill kits Cleaning service rags Freshwater test fluids Corrosion inhibitors Culture waste (filter media, gravel, etc.) Cuttings, neat Cuttings, with oil Empty containers, hazardous Empty containers, nonhazardous Enzyme solutions

Field product samples Filter cake, disks, and paper w/chrome-free mud Filter cake, disks, and paper w/chrome-containing mud Freshwater test fluids Hydrofluoric acid (handle with extreme care)

Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Recycle Recycle

Disposal per MSDS Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Recycle Disposal Disposal

Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Disposal Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Disposal per kit directions Disposal Recycle

Disposal per MSDS Disposal

Disposal Disposal Disposal Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Disposal Recycle

Disposal

Recycle Disposal

Table 2.4 Continued

Recycle / Disposal

Class

Hydrogen peroxide Hydroxy ethyl cellulose Lignosulfonate and lignite product test muds Mercury thermometers Well-cleaning chemicals Mud additives Emulsifiers Fluid loss control Lignosulfonates Lubricants Shale inhibitors Shale stabilizers Surfactants Wetting agents Mud filtrates, oil-based/ synthetic-based mud Mud filtrates, water-based mud Oil, with non-OBM constituents Oil, with OBM constituents required for OBM conditioning Oil, mixed with hazardous wastes

Oil-based/synthetic-based mud and wash chemicals Organic peroxides Paper towels used to clean up brines and muds Persulfates pH Buffers pH test solution residuals Polymer slurries, mineral oil or other carrier Polymers, dry

Potassium hydroxide (solid) Potassium hydroxide (solution)

Retort cooked solids

(chrome-containing mud)

Disposal Disposal Disposal

Disposal

Disposal per MSDS

Disposal per MSDS

Disposal

Recycle

Disposal

Recycle

Disposal

Disposal

Disposal Disposal

Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Return to original container Disposal

Disposal Disposal

Dilute and dispose of down sink drain Disposal

2 Haz

1

Drilling Fluids

65

Table 2.4

Continued

M

Recycle / Disposal

Class

Retort cooked solids

Disposal

2

(chrome-free mud)

Salt gel/attapulgite

Disposal

2

Silver nitrate solution

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

Sodium carbonate (solid)

Disposal

Haz

Sodium carbonate (solution)

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

Sodium hydroxide (solid)

Disposal

Haz

Sodium hydroxide (solution)

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

Solvents, chlorinated

Disposal

Haz

Solvents, nonchlorinated

Disposal

Haz

Titration residue

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

Titration solution residue

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

Wash water, laboratory

Dilute and dispose of down

-

equipment and general

sink drain

WBM spent titrations

Dilute and dispose of down

-

sink drain

WBM (Cl<20,000 ppm

Recycle

-

and oil <3%)

WBM (Cl >20,000 ppm

Disposal

1

or oil > 3%)

WBM, chrome-free

Disposal

???

saltwater

WBM, chrome-containing

Disposal

???

WBM, all others

Disposal

???

OBM = oil-based mud; WBM = water-based mud; MSDS = Material Safety Data Sheet.

OBM = oil-based mud; WBM = water-based mud; MSDS = Material Safety Data Sheet.

improperly processed, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed,'' as further defined in 30 TAC 335.505 [Texas Administrative Code].

Class 2 waste is any material that cannot be described as hazardous, as class 1, or as class 3.

Class 3 wastes are inert and essentially insoluble materials, usually including, but not limited to, "materials such as rock, brick, glass, dirt and certain plastics and rubber, etc., that are not readily decomposable.''

REFERENCES

Ali, A., Kalloo, C. L., and Singh, U. B., ''A Practical Approach for Preventing Lost Circulation in Severely Depleted Unconsolidated Sandstone Reservoirs,'' SPE/IADC 21917, SPE/IADC Conference, Amsterdam, March 11-14, 1991.

Amoco Production Co., Solids Control Handbook, March 1994.

API 13A, ''Specification for Drilling Fluid Materials,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington D.C., 15th ed., May 1993.

API RP 13B1, ''Recommended Practice for Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 3rd ed., Nov. 2003.

API RP 13B2, ''Recommended Practice for Field Testing Oil-Based Drilling Fluids,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 3rd ed., 2002.

API RP 13C, ''Recommended Practice for Drilling Fluid Processing Systems Evaluation,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 2nd ed., March 1996.

API RP 13D, ''Recommended Practice on the Rheology and Hydraulics of Oil-Well Drilling Fluids,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 4th ed., May 2003.

API RP 13I, ''Recommended Practice, Standard Procedure for Laboratory Testing Drilling Fluids,'' American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 6th ed., May 2000.

Barnes, H. A., Hutton, J. F., and Walters, K., Rheology Series 3: An Introduction to Rheology, Elsevier Science B.V., New York, 1989.

Bourgoyne, A. T., Jr., Millheim, K. K., Chenevert, M. E., and Young, F. S., Jr., Applied Drilling Engineering, SPE Textbook Series, Vol. 2, Richardson, TX, 1986, p. 476.

Bowles, J. E., Engineering Properties of Soil and Their Management, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.

Bradford, D. W., Growcock, F. B., Malachosky, E., and Fleming, C. N., ''Evaluation of Centrifugal Drying for Recovery of Synthetic-Based and Oil-Based Drilling Fluids,'' SPE 56566, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Oct. 3-6, 1999.

Bush, H. E., ''Treatment of Drilling Fluid to Combat Corrosion,'' SPE 5123, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Oct. 6-9, 1974.

Cheremisinoff, N. P., Editor, Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics: Slurry Flow Technology, Vol. 5, Gulf Pub. Co., Houston, TX, 1986.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Washington, D.C., 2002.

Darley, H. C. H., ''Designing Fast Drilling Fluids,'' J. Petrol. Technol., April 1965, pp. 465-470.

Darley, H. C. H., and Gray, G. R., Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluids, 5th ed., Gulf Pub. Co., Houston, 1986.

Friedheim, J., Toups, B., and van Oort, E., ''Drilling Faster with Water-Based Muds,'' AADE Ann. Tech. Forum, Houston, March 30-31, 1999.

Garnier, A. J., and van Lingen, N. H., ''Phenomena Affecting Drilling Rates at Depth,'' J. Petrol. Technol., Sept. 1959, pp. 232-239.

Gavignet, A. A., and Sobey, I. J., ''A Model for the Transport of Cuttings in Directional Wells,'' SPE 15417, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Oct. 5-8, 1986.

Glenn, E. E., and Slusser, M. L., ''Factors Affecting Well Productivity II. Drilling Fluid Particle Invasion into Porous Media,'' J. Petrol. Technol., May 1957, pp. 132-139.

Growcock, F. B., ''New Calcium Chloride Base Drilling Fluid Increases Penetration Rate in Deep Water GOM Well,'' The Brief, Amoco Production Co., March 1997.

Growcock, F. B., Frederick, T. P. and Zhang, J., ''How Water-Based Muds Can Be Treated to Increase Drilling Rate in Shale,'' AADE Ann. Tech. Forum, Houston, March 30-31, 1999.

Hollier, C., Reddoch, J., and Hollier, G., ''Successful Optimization of Advances in Disposal and Treatment Technologies, to Cost Effectively Meet New Oil-Based Cuttings Environmental Regulations,'' AADE 01-NC-HO-13, AADE National Drilling Conference, Houston, March 27-29, 2001.

Lal, M., and Thurber, N. E., ''Drilling Waste Management and Closed Loop Systems,'' presented at the International Conference on Drilling Wastes, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, April 5-8, 1988.

Lundie, P., ''Technical Review for UKOOA Alernative Mud Systems for Replacing Conventional Oil/Water Ratio Muds,'' United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association No. 206647, 1989.

M-I llc, Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual, Houston, TX, 2002.

O'Brien, T. B., and Dobson, M., "Hole Cleaning: Some Field Results,'' SPE/ IADC 13442, 1985 SPE Drilling Conference, New Orleans, March 5-8, 1985.

Robinson, L., private communication.

Svarovsky, L., Solid-Liquid Separation, Chemical Engineering Series, Butterworth & Co. Ltd., London, 1981.

Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Austin, TX, 2002.

Walker, R. E., ''Drilling Fluid Rheology,'' Drilling, Feb. 1971, pp. 43-58.

Wright, T. R., Jr., ''Guide to Drilling, Workover and Completion Fluids,'' World Oil, June 1978, pp. 53-98.

Young, G., and Robinson, L. H., ''How to Design a Mud System for Optimum Solids Removal,'' World Oil, Sept.-Nov. 1982.

CHAPTER 3

Going Green For More Cash

Going Green For More Cash

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Responses

  • principio
    How to dispose of glass sheet?
    6 years ago
  • hugo
    How to dispose of used oil filters in texas?
    6 years ago
  • Otto
    How to dispose of oil base mud in texas?
    6 years ago
  • callimaco
    Is drilling fluids hazardous waste?
    5 years ago
  • Hobson
    What fluids can a class 2 disposal except?
    5 years ago
  • haiden
    Does oil based mud have hazardous characteristics?
    5 years ago
  • PONTO
    How to dispose of oil based mud?
    5 years ago
  • Sandra
    What drilling fluids are hazardous or nonhazardous?
    5 years ago
  • jeremiah
    IS OILBASE MUD CONSIDERED HAZERDOUS IN TX?
    5 years ago
  • maggie
    What class of waste is drilling fluids?
    4 years ago
  • TODD
    How to dispose of oilbased drilling fluid?
    2 years ago
  • girmay
    Is drilling mud considered hazardous waste in texas oil and gas?
    2 years ago
  • Atso
    How to dispose drilling fluid from containers?
    1 year ago

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