The ton-miles of work performed in short trip operations is also expressed in terms of round trips. Analysis shows that the ton-miles of work done in making a short trip is equal to the difference in round trip ton-miles for the two depths in question.
where Tst = ton-miles for short trip
T6 - ton-miles for one round trip at the deeper depth, the depth of the bit before starting the short trip. T5 = ton-miles for one round trip at the shallower depth, the depth that the bit is pulled up to.
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Co-op Mailing means that two or more businesses share in the cost and distribution of a direct mail campaign. It's kind of like having you and another non-competing business split the cost of printing, assembling and mailing an advertising flyer to a shared same market base.