A q

Tt (STAGE 1) Tc 4 TP 4 TCH Tt (STAGE 2) Tc 4- T P 4- T CH - time for opening bomb to reach stage collar - time to circulate out mud cement through stage collar - time to allow stage 1 cement to set. (e) Pressure differentials prior to bumping plugs Pd (STAGE 1) Ps (outside) - Ps (inside) where, Ps (outside) - HH cement 4- HH pre-flush 4- HH mud Ps (inside) HH cement (shoetrack) + HH spacer + HH mud Pd (STAGE 2) Psc (outside) - Psc (inside) Ps (outside) HH cement 4- HH pre-flush 4- HH mud Ps...

Fishing Tools for Holes

8 Hydraulic jar 65 8 Reg. pin x box 2. 8 Accelerator 65 8 Reg. pin x box 3. 8 Fishing bumper sub 6 Reg. pin x box 4. 7 Surface jar 41 2 IF pin x box 5. 1174 Overshot, c w extension subs and 15 + 22 guides, to catch 972 + 81 D.C. and 5 D.P. + 6 tooljoints. 6. 11V4 Reverse circulating basket 6 Reg. box 7. 12 Magnet 67 ' Reg. pin (optional) 8. 972 Junk sub 67a Reg. box x box 9. 87 ' Overshot, c w extension sub and 11 guides to catch 5 D.P. 4- 678 tooljoints. 10. 117d Globe basket (or equivalent)...

After mud circulation

Mix & pump, cement (monitor weight continuously & take samples) e. Displace with water spacer behind f. Chase with mud at predetermined speed to create turbulent flow in the annulus (count the pump strokes) g. Reduce pump strokes as top plug approaches collar. Note differential pressure to estimate height of cement i. Pressure test casing as per programme k. Nipple up new casing spool or housing with BOP stack & pressure test I. Run in hole with new bit, tag TOC and proceed as per...

Api Tolerances For New Bits

The Go and No Go - If acceptable the product bit should enter the Go gauge (product not too large). - If acceptable, the product bit should not enter the No Go gauge (product not too - Both the Go and the No Go gauges should be within 20 F of the same temperature as the bit for accurate measurement.

Basic Colour Identification Of Piping Systems

A basic code for general identification is given below as a guide and the use of a lettred or stencilled key is recommended for indicating the grade or class of the contents. It is not intended that entire lines should be painted with the corresponding colour. By means of appropriate bands spaced at convenient intervals, the contents of lines should be indicated.

Before Rerunning Green Bits

Regrease 14V4 diameter and larger open bearing bits. Check any sealed-bearing bit for effective seals and complete cutting structure. Soak any sealed bearing bit in water or diesel to loosen formation packed in the reservoir cap equalization ports. Check Diamond product bits for complete cutting structure, Make sure the bit is in gauge. Regardless of how well designed or manufactured a bit, its application and the applied practices ultimately determine the success or failure of the run,

Calculate

Slip & cut if necessary b. Total weight of string before & after cementation c. Maximum hookload & safety factor (if safety factor is too low, consider stringing more lines) d. Estimated crown load compare to allowable derrick design load e. Check substructure loading with drillstring in the derrick & casing landed in table f. Check actual hole depth to casing shoe depth

Cmcstarch

A large number of polymers is available worldwide under many different trade names. The base products are normally Cellulose (CMC, carbocel etc.) or Starch (flocgel, stabilose). These polymers affect both the fluid loss and the viscosity of the mud. LV (low viscosity) versions are generally designed to lower the fluid loss without major effects on viscosity. HV (high viscosity) versions have a major effect on the viscosity (PV) and generally reduce the fluid loss as well. HV polymers should be...

Conductor Design To prevent formation breakdown while drilling

We need to calculate the minimum conductor setting depth based on the following data 1. Formation strength gradient p FSG 5. Flow line height above seabed Fh Let X the casing setting depth below seabed, then, (X x pFSG) + (Dw x psw) - (Fh 4 X) pm Example given p FSG 0.67 psi ft Dw 175 ft psw 0.445 psi ft Fh 240 ft pm* 0.48 psi ft 0.67X 4- (175x0.445) - (240 4- X)0.48 Depth of conductor BDF 10 4 65 + 175 4 200 - 450 ft * Mud weight in annulus based on calculated maximum drilling rate to avoid...

Contamination

Contamination of the mud is a steady process while drilling, as drilled solids are continually entering the mud. While much of the drilled solids are inert, there are certain materials which can cause severe problems with the mud properties or with corrosion and the effect on these will depend on how quickly the contaminant enters the mud. Any contamination should be treated immediately, so careful and frequent checks should be kept on the actual mud properties. Advance treatment to prevent...

Cylinder Fluid Level Check Procedure

(1) With empty blocks, the lower parts of clevis 'E' should be down to line 'B' leaving a gap of approximately 1 4 in. between top of cylinder and clevis. (2) When this gap increases exposing line 'A' the system is low on fluid and should be refilled. If the gap between the top of the cylinder and the lower part of the clevis is allowed to reach 7 a in., the system is out of fluid and no further movement of the gauge is possible.

Definitions in Sequence of Increasing Pressure Values

Working pressure is the operating pressure. Maximum working pressure is the working pressure + 5 . Design pressure is the maximum working pressure -f 10 . Maximum allowable working pressure is the maximum pressure which is allowed at the top of the vessel in its operating position i.e. the pressure based on design stress (yield or creep value) in the material and taking into account the design temperature and a corrosion allowance. Maximum allowable pressure is the allowable pressure obtained...

Difficulty Going To Bottom

Previous bit undergauge New bottom hole assembly Collapsed casing Out of drift Bit oversized When reaming to bottom, pick up and ream section again. If difficulty remains, check Usn bi-enntnr bit or roducc bit sizn Gauge bit with API gauge if not in tolerance, Replace with correct size stabilizer

Economics

Cost of workover completion fluids may be as high as 3-4 US liter. This leads to substantial investments especially when the fluid is kept in the hole for long periods. Moreover, treatment costs may rise up to 25 US barrel circulation volume. Careful programming of the use, restoration and reuse of the fluids and proper selection of treatment systems will have considerable effect on total economics of workover completion operations. Workover completion fluids are usually divided in two...

Exterior Conditions

Wall Remain ng wall not less than 80 c Any imperfections or damages exceeding CLASS 2 Diameter reduction not over 3 c of OD Diameter reduction nol over 4-c. Of OD Diameter reductior not over 3 c of OD Depth nc to exceed of Ihe average adjacent wall Diameter reducl on not over 4 0 of OD Deoin not to exceed 20'.-ol the aver ace adjacent wall D. Stress induced Diame er Variations D'ametei reduction not over 3 .-, of OH D ameter increase nc over 3 o of OD Diameter reduction rur over 4C n OD...

Fluid Formation rock Interactions

A workover completion fluid entering a clay containing formation may cause swelling and dispersion of clay resulting in formation impairment. When a minimum of 3 W KCL or some other salt e.g. NaCI is present in the fluid damage will generally be prevented. At high brine densities (i.e. high salinities) CaBr2 brines (s.g. between 1.70 and 1.80 kg I) have shown formation damage due to clay shrinkage. Furthermore, a pH value above 11 will most probably cause clay dispersion and must therefore be...

Fluid lossmudcake

As the hydrostatic head of the mud is generally higher than the pore pressure in the formation, liquid from the mud will be forced into the formation. Consequently a filtercake consisting of the solids in the mud is formed on the borehole wall. For various reasons it is essentia that this mudcake is as thin and impermeable as possible. Dispersed and deflocculated clay particles are very small and flat and can form a thin and impermeable mudcake. If larger particles are present (clay aggregates,...

Formations In Which Diamond Products

- Polycristalline Diamond Compact (PDC) Bits -Very weak, poorly consolidated, brittle, shallow sediments (e.g. sands, silts, clays Miocene) - Low strength, poorly compacted, brittle, non-abrasive, relatively shallow sediments, precipitates and evaporites (e.g. salt, anhydrates, marls, chalk Devonian Muschel chalk) - Moderately strong, somewhat abrasive and ductile, indurated medium-depth sediments, precipitates and evaporites (e.g. silty claystone, siliceous shales, porous carbonates,...

General properties

Gypsum is sometimes added to the mud when large amounts of active clay must be drilled. The calcium ions from the gyp convert the clay particles into the relatively harmless calcium form whereby strong increases in viscosity are prevented. Additions of ligno sulfonate further reduce the viscosity. CMC or starches are required for fluid loss control as the clay particles are now aggregated and consequently no thin filter cake can be obtained. A bentonite fresh water ligno sulphonate mud may also...

High Pressure Differential Across Nozzles Or Bit Face

Bit partially plugged (formation impaction) Reduce flow rate, on next bit change flow area Reduce flow rate If ROP acceptable, change on next bit If ROP unacceptable, pull bit and use bit with Let bit drill off, circulate full volume for Pick up, circulate, resume drilling at higher RPM, On- and off-bottom pressure test, pull bit Refer to manufacturer's handbook

Xwm

Opening pressure required to open rams _ Rated Working Pressure with rated working pressure in bore Opening Ratio Example N.L. Shaffer 476V4 mm (187 ') - 68,950 kPa 10r000 psi) w.p. ram type BOP * Opening ratio (shear and pipe) 1.83 * Assuming the rated working pressure is 20,625 kPa (3,000 psi) for the operating chamber, solving for maximum well bore pressure. X - 37,853.6 kPa (5,490 psi) well bore pressure Example Hydril 476V4mm (18 ) -103,425 kPa (15,000 psi) w.p. ram type BOP * Opening...

Interior Conditions

Wall Rena nmg wall not less than 80 o NOTE 1. In any classification where fatigue cracks or washouts appear, the pipe will be identified with the red band and considered unfit for further drilling service 2. Average adjacent wall is determined by measunng the wall thickness on each side of the cut or gouge adjacent to the deepest penetration.

Info

C3 x 0.8 C x 1 8 + 32 C + 273 C x 1.8 t- 492 Re x 1.25 Renx 2.25 + 32 Re x 1.25 + 273 Re x 2.25 + 492 (F - 32) 1.8 (F - 32) x 0.444 (F - 32) 1.8 + 273 F + 460 (K - 273) x 0.8 (K - 273) x 1.8 + 32 (K - 273) x 1.8 + 492 (R - 492) 1.8 (R - 492) x 0.444 R - 460 NOTE Tr. tF- + 459.67 TK - tc +273.15

Introduction

Oil base muds are used worldwide for several different applications. Oil base muds are specially suitable for drilling slim and deviated holes, depleted zones and water sensible formations. Two different types of oil base muds can be distinguished, pure oil base muds and invert oil emulsion muds (IOEM). Pure oil base mud contains less than 3 vol water. This water is considered as unavoidable contaminant and the mud properties are created by adding chemicals. Invert Oil Emulsion Mud contains 5 -...

Maximum Height Of Tooljoint Above Slips To Prevent Bending During Tonging

SECTION MODULUS VALUES (for new pipe only ) SECTION MODULUS VALUES (for new pipe only ) The recommended make-up torque values can be found on pgs C-5 and C-6 for all available tool joints. Safety factor to reduce Ymin Shell is 0.85 Maximum allowable tensile load on pipe is 0.85 x Min. yield stress x C.S. Margin of overpull M.O.P. (Maximum allowable tensile load) - (weight of string in mud) SF S ip crushing) can be obtained from the table on page C-24 Minimum yield stress for various grades of...

Method Of Attachment And Number Required

Distance between clips should be equal to six rope diameters Distance between clips should be equal to six rope diameters Correct method U-BOLTS OF CLIPS ON SHORT END OF ROPE Correct method U-BOLTS OF CLIPS ON SHORT END OF ROPE tWrong U-BOLTS ON LIVE END OF ROPE tWrong U-BOLTS ON LIVE END OF ROPE Length of rope turned back exclusive of eye NOTE When clips are properly applied efficiency is approximately 80 NOTE When clips are properly applied efficiency is approximately 80

Nc Nc Nc Nc Nc Nc

Many sizes and styles of connections are interchangeable with certain other sizes and styles of connections. These conditions differ only in name and in some cases thread form. If the thread forms are interchangeable, the connections are interchangeable. REGULAR threads are not included in the N.C. system. CAPACITY, DISPLACEMENT AND APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS OF NEW DRILLPIPE, INCLUDING TOOLJOINTS.

Possible causes

Inadequate fluid loss control and solids build up High fluid loss Filter cake thick and spongy High viscosity (high PV, YP, gels and solids) High viscosity high PV, solids, normal YP, Gels) High viscosity (normal PV, solids, high YP, gels) High viscosity (high PV, YP, normal gels, solids) Possibly combination excess drilled solids and excess particles Flocculation (high waterloss, high YP, gels, increase in hardness and pH Foaming aeration (foam formed on top of mud pits) Grouping together of...

Postkick Information

Depth of kick Ah, Dan True vertical depth, Dtv Closed in DP pressure, PdF Closed in annular pressure, Par Volume gained at kick Formation pressure, P0 PdD + (Dtv x po New mud density, p2 pi + Pdp Dtu Barytes required, Ni 1472.1 x (p2-pi) 7(1.82 -p ) NOTE barytes 4.2 kg I 1.82 psi ft Migration rate, Mr - Panm) Mpi x At) Annular velocity while killing DF - .ft min Standpipe pressure at start of kill observed . Circulating pressure pi mud Pci Pst-Pdp Circulating pressure. p2 mud PC2 (P2 pi) x Pd...

Power Law Viscosities

Power low viscosities can be obtained from fann viscometer results in various ways. In their simplest form n and k are calculated as follows n - 3.32 log r600 The n value is the most important for direct mud-engineering applications. A low n value will generally improve the carrying capacity of mud. For turbulent flow mud displacement during cementations the n value should be as close to 1 as possible.

Prekick Information

Mud density, pi Size of hole Open hole capacity Heavy Wt DP.Size WT t Heavy Wt DP.Disp (closed endj mym Heavy Wt DP, Cap rrrVm Riser OD ID Riser Capacity Riser Length ChoKe line K i line ID Choke line K i I line cap. Casing. Size WT Grade Casing Burs (new) x 0.85 Casing capacity Casing shoe depth AH .TV Liner, Size WT Grade Liner capacity Liner shoe AH TV Ann. velocity while drillinq around ' rri min Openhole DC Openhole DC Openhole HWDP Openhole DP Liner DR Casing DF Casing DP Total closed m...

Pressure Atthe Top Of A Gas Bubble At Any Point In The Annulus While Circulating It Out Using The Dr

Let P The pressure of the top of the gas at the specified point PD - pD x h1 (h1 DC OH or DC + DP OH) Alternatively use P0* P0 - Pf The formation pressure Initial mud gradient Pressure exerted by the mass of gas at point of interest 'x' (p0 x hb) Initial compressibility factor of gas Compressibility factor of gas at the point of interest. Absolute initial temperature of the gas. Absolute temperature of the gas at the point of interest. HEIGHT OF GASCOLUMN ATTHE BOTTOM OF THE HOLE OR...

Pressure Tests

The test pressure should be maintained in the vessel for at least half and hour. In a pressure vessel, the flanges and fittings are designed with a higher safety factor than the shell of the vessel. The flanges and fittings are therefore not of practical influence on the allowable pressure. All the pressures considered are to be taken as gauge pressures. Hydrostatic Test (full and limited inspection vessels) The hydrostatic test pressure of the vessel is 1.5 times the safe working pressure at...

Prior To Running The

- Reach an agreement with the operator contractor on what is expected of the bit - Reach an agreement on what mechanical and hydraulic requirements are available and or necessary to achieve optimum or expected performance - Before running the diamond bit into the hole, have a junk basket run on the previous bit - After the previous bit is pulled, inspect it for junk damage and other wear, then gauge - If previous bit appears OK, the bit may be readied to run into the hole - Ensure that bit...

Quantitative

Distinction between shale and non-shale Detection of radio-active minerals Estimate shale in 'dirty' sands Nett. Gross ratio in reservoir section. Locating lost pipe Casing collar location Formation homogeneity Show fractures, fossils Deposition patterns Determine stimulation possibilities Calibrate porosity logs Formation permeability Symbol in brackets () indicates Qualitative data only

Recommendations For Fire Extinguishers

Electrical fires, or oil, paint, grease Protect from frost by adding 10 calcium chloride Small surface fires of oil, grease or paint. Also for covering and absorbing spills Electrical fires, or fires in tanks or containers Keep dry. Protect from frost by adding 1-2 calcium chloride Wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc., in offices, stores and houses Electrical fires, or oil, paint, grease According to directions on the extinguisher Protect against temperatures below 40F < 4'C) Electrical also...

Recommended treatment

Prepare batch of new mud with excess CMC-LV and add slowly to system. Run solids removal equipment. Thinners may also be needed. Run solids removal equipment. Dilution may also be needed. Run solids removal equipment. Thinners and dilution may also be needed. Add mixture of 5 lbs defoamer (aluminium tristearate) and 5 bbls diesel to the mud. Increase YP viscosity by addition of bentonite biopolymer.

Roller Cutter Bits

NOMINAL BIT SIZE in inches) API TOLERANCE 177 and larger -I- 7J2 minus 0 P.D.C. cutters are self sharpening and continue to drill until they are worn to approximately semi-circular shape. The percentage cutter wear figures given are based on the area of cutter that has been used divided by the area of a semi-circular cutter. (Because of this it is possible to obtain wear greater than 100 .) It should be noted that although the LIFE of the P.D.C. cutter is related to the given wear figure, the...

Runningin

Only run casing if hole is in good condition after wiper trip b. Lay down drillcollars & drillpipe if required c. Install casing tongs, rotary table insert or casing spider d. Change top pipe-rams to casing rams f. When running-in apply thread lock to ALL connections of the shoe track g. Ensure correct torque for make-up h. Run in at controlled speed to minimize pressure surges (approx. i. Check returns constantly j. Fill up each joint k. Change to slip elevator at shoe of last casing a....

Single Acting Triplex Pump

L min 2.3555 x 10 6 x L x D2 x SPM x Vol Eff 1) As soon as a casing string has been run and cemented a. Determine the Maximum allowable Annular surface pressure, using the mud weight used for drilling below the shoe, the vertical depth of the shoe, and the formation strength gradient at the shoe. The formation strength at the shoe can be determined by doing an integrity test after drilling out the cement, or can be taken from previously drilled nearby the When we have casing filled only with...

Steps For Cpr Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

Confirm patient is unconcious. attempt to rouse them. 2. No response, tilt head back lo keep airway clear. 4. No breathing, 4 quick breaths. 6 Pulse present, no breathing. 1 breath every 5 seconds 7. No pulse present commence CPR. 8. 15 compressions, counting one one thousand, two one thousand, three one thousand, four one thousand etc 11. No pulse. 15 more compressions followed by 2 brealns 12. Check tor pulse no pulse repeat steps 10 & 11 13. Pulse detected. 1 breath every 5 seconds. 14 IJ...

The oil phase

The following chemicals are used in the oil phase of IOEM Diesel oil has been the widest used base oil for oil base mud. In view of its large concentration of aromatic compounds (toxicity ) diesel is nowadays phased out and replaced by less toxic base oils. A wide range of low toxic (aromatic content less than 2 ) base oils is available. Flash point and viscosity of base oils vary widely. A list of base oils with their various properties is presented on p. J-30. The water that is present in the...

The water phase

The composition of the water phase is a key-factor in the emulsion stability and mud - formation interactions. Especially the effect of the water composition on the emulsion stability is often not appreciated and expensive oil phase chemicals are wasted where cheap water phase chemicals can be used. Chemicals that are added to an IOEM in order to treat the water phase must find a way to the water droplets through the oil phase. It is therefore recommended to use fine powders rather than flakes...

Training Division Drilling Engineering

In SI there are 7 base units from which all Used alone or in combinations these base Acceleration metre per second squared The value of most SI units can be changed with the simple placing of a prefix in front is the quantity of matter in an object and is constant as well on earth as in space Units of mass kg kilogram Force mass x acceleration Unit of force N newton (N kg.m.s2) Practical use daN decanewton kN kilonewton MN meganewton Energy is force x distance N.m Unit of work J joule Practical...

Use The Equation

NOTE COMPARE THE TEST PRESSURE CALCULATED ABOVE WITH 75 OF THE CASING BURST PRESSURE AND USE THE LOWEST VALUE WORN CASING (API 5C3) 1. Pipe Body Yield Strength Py Pipe body yield strength in pounds rounded to nearest 1000 lbs. Yp Specified minimum yield strength for pipe, psi. D Specified outside diameter, inches, d Specified inside diameter, inches. 2. Internal Pressure Resistance (Burst Pressure) for Plain End Pipe P minimum internal yield pressure in pounds per square inch, (rounded to the...

What Formations

- Clastic rocks formed or fragments transported from their source and deposited elsewhere (e.g. sandstone, shale) - Evaporites rocks formed by precipitation or solution and recrystalization (e.g. rock salt, gypsum) -Carbonates rocks formed from inorganic remains such as shells or skeletons of organisms (e.g. limestone) - Metamorphic rocks altered by heat, pressure, chemical factors, the introduction of water, or other factores resulting in a more compact and highly crystalline condition (e.g....

When To Pull The

-The bit ceases to be economical through cost foot calculations - When very high on-bottom torque with little WOB and a decrease in ROP occurs - Bit undergauge, tough formation - Dramatic decrease in ROP and on-bottom torque - Changes in stand pipe pressure - If goes up cutter structure failure - If goes down nozzle lost, washout EVALUATION OF USED BITS (DULL GRADING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND COMPACT (PDC) BITS - Generally, bit should not be re-run if cutting element is over 50 worn - excessive...

When To Use A Diamond Product

- Generally, the rate of penetration ultimately determines the economics of the bit run - When on-bottom times are important - When oil-phase mud systems are used (preferred) -When water-phase systems are used in non-hydrating formations (preferred) - When rotating at high speeds (turbine or PDM) -When high bottom hole temperatures are encountered (approx. 300 F and higher) -When drilling in deviated hole section requiring light bit weight -When drilling significantly overbalanced

Wk ylbsft

Annular Capacity rriVta Pipe Casing size (mm) Casing pipe weights in kg m Pipe diameter in mm 3. Calculation of annular capacity between casing and pipe, when ID of casing is unknown (for steel pipe only) Cap (m3 m) iCasing OD '163 87 x Casing kg m' < Pipe 0Df- 4. Calculation of casing capacity, when ID of casing is unknown, (for steel casing only) Cap < m3 m) - (Casing ODf-163-87 * Casin9 k9 m 1.273 x10s 5. Calculation of I.D. of casing (for steel casing...

Nol

Ann. velocity while drilling around Rn ft min Openhole Dp Liner DF Casing DF Casing DF Total closed in annulus contents .bbls .bbls .bbls .bbls .bbls .bbls .bbls .bbls Formation strength gradient psj t psi ft -Same fluid in choke + kill lines and hole - Different fluid in choke + kill line 3 Dynamic MAASPl4 Static MAASP -a P chokeline psi Gallons to > Upper Annular Lower Annular Pipe Rams B. Shear Rams Fail Safe Valve Active tank capacity Total tank capacity Short Ton Short Ton Short Ton...

Y

(b) Thickening time and compressive strength See Halliburton Cementing Tables. VCH Lfc x Capcsg. Strokes Time (e) Pressure differential prior to bumping plug Pd Ps (outside) - Ps (inside) where, Ps (outside) - HH cement + HH pre-flush 4- HH mud Ps (inside) HH cement (shoe track) + HH spacer + HH mud

Toxicology

Hydrogen sulphide is both an irritant and an asphyxiant. Table 1 (on page N-17) gives the physiological response to various concentrations of H2S in air. It is important to note that the values quoted are ppm in air and not in stream. It must also be appreciated that the values are average only, as susceptibility can vary significantly between individuals exposed to H2S. 2. 10 ppm is the Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) defined by the American Conference of Governmental...

Pressure At The Top Of A Gas Bubble At Any Point In The Annulus While Circulating It Out Using The W

Let P The pressure of the top of the gas at the specified point where A, - PQ - (D - X) p2 4- D1 (p2 - p,) - Pf P0* P0 - p0 x h1 (h1 DC OH or DC + DP OH) Alternatively use P0* P0 - Pf Pf Pressure exerted by the mass of gas at point of interest 'x' p0 x Z, Initial compressibility factor of gas Z2 Compressibility factor of gas at the point of interest. T, Absolute initial temperature of the gas. T2 Absolute temperature of the gas at the point of interest. hb HEIGHT OF GAS COLUMN ATTHE BOTTOM OF...

Usable Cutter Ht

Cutter tensity s detenninsd by manufacturer. The numbers 1 - 9 and 0 in the fourth character ol the IADC code refer lo ihe cutler size and placement aensity on trie bit. Cutter tensity s detenninsd by manufacturer. The numbers 1 - 9 and 0 in the fourth character ol the IADC code refer lo ihe cutler size and placement aensity on trie bit. The numbers l 9 in Ihe second character of Ihe IADC code reier to the bJ s cross-secional profile

Hydraulics Field Units

To optimize drilling performance with the equipment available.a plan must be drawn for the hydraulics to be applied . Pre-determine hydraulic parameters using approximations. 1. Minimum annular velocity around drillpipe based on Fuflerton's approximation) Assume cuttings are 1 4 diameter, sg 2.51 and V3 S 50 AV (a) If Prr 0.6234 psi ft (b) If Pm S 0.6234 psi ft then AVP n 3 then Use flow rate in Table 1 Annulus AV 245x0 Drillstring V 24-5 * Q 3.36 PV +3.36 VPV2 + 178.78(D2 -0,f x YPxpm Annulus...

W

Cross over of deep and shallow resistivity cross over of deep and shallow resistivity Quick Look methods to distinguish hydrocarbons and water RFT Repeat Formation Tester FIT Formation Interval Tester' SGP Strain Gauge Pressure HPGP HP Gauge Pressure PTHO Pressure Thousands(psi) PHUN Pressure Hundreds (psi) PTEN Pressure Tens(psi) PONE Pressure Ones ANALOG HP Available 0-10' psi 0 -103 psi 0 - 102pSi 0-10 psi CST Core Sample Tool SWS Sidewaii Samples Core Drilling Tool available Electromaanetic...

Sealed Bearings

E - seals effective F - seals failed Vie - Vie out of gauge Vie - V out of gauge 10 16 -1 out of gauge 5 -63 4 7 - 83 . 9V2 - 1472 147, - 20 Note Certain sizes can be supplied with 7 or 8 A.P.I. Reg. connections on special order. Milled tooth bits Desirable conditions Hardfacing has held cutting edge on teeth flanks (self-sharpening wear) Fig. 1 Medium-formation bit Desirable (not as obvious as above) Milled tooth bits Undesirable conditions Rounded-off blunt teeth (hard formation bit)...

Physical Properties

The formula for hydrogen sulphide (also known as sulfurated hydrogen) is H2S. 2. Boiling point -60 9 C (at 1013 mbar) 3. H2S at atmospheric pressure is a flammable gas, combustible in air and producing sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide (S02), als known as sulfurous anhydride or sulfurous oxide, has a density relative to air of 1.4, is toxic and colourless. 4. H2S explosive limits, which determine the range in which a mixture of gas with air can catch fire or explode on ignition, are 4.3. to 46...

General Points on Recovery of Tubular Fish using Connecting Tools

Standard Assembly A typical fishing assembly when using connecting tools will consist of the catching tool plus fishing bumper sub, jar drillcollars and accelerator. When a non-releasing tool such as tap or die collar is being employed as the catching tool this assembly should also include a safety joint between the catching tool and jar. However, since the safety tool will not transmit reverse torque it would not be possible to backoff below it using a string shot. Avoid restrictions in the...

Frequency And Types Of Surveys To Be Taken

7 casing liner (production string) 1 May be omitted if the well is clear of other wells and good surveys have been taken in open hole. 2 Can use MWD ST MSS MMS when there are problems getting gyro down or when inclination > 70s. 3 MSS or HDT allowed below top of lowest pay zone (in open hole). 4 If inclination < 1 can use a TOTCO. 5 IN (FINDS) to replace gyro if available. 6 In hot wells ( > 120 C 25Q'F) there may not be enough room for the gyro heat shield. In such cases run a magnetic...

Post Kick Information

ft Barytes required, Ni 1472.1 x ( p2-p-)-> (1.82 - p2) NOTE barytes 4.2 kg I 1.82 psi ft Migration rate, vPann2 - Pan-n) (p 1 x At) Standpipe pressure at start of kill observed Surface to bit _____________________ ____________________ MAASP with P2 mud in hole and Pi mud in kill line< b MAASP with P2 mud in hole, choke and kill line(6 Riser margin is defined as follows The extra mud gradient required above the mud gradient needed to balance the formation gradient with the riser installed,...

Conversion Factors

NOTE 1) Conversion factors based on g 9.807 m s2 32.174 ft s2 2) Pound signifies pound (avdp) 3) Density of water at 15 C under atmospheric pressure 999.13 Kg m3 4) Density of mercury at 0 C under atmospheric pressure 13595.5 Kg m3 NOTE 1) Conversion factors based on g 9.807 m s2 32.174 ft s2 2) Pound signifies pound (avdp) 3) Density of water at 15 C under atmospheric pressure 999.13 Kg m3 4) Density of mercury at 0 C under atmospheric pressure 13595.5 Kg m3

Construction Of Kill Graph In A Deviated Hole

During Phase 1 the pressure will drop due to heavy mud entering the drill pipe string and the pressure will rise due to higher friction loss of theP2mud. Therefore at point of interest 'x', the standpipe pressure will be Pst 'X' Pststart + (PC2 - PCi) - SDtvd (p2 - pi) Pst standpipe pressure observed at start of kill (kPa or psi) PCl circulating pressure at start of kill (kPa or psi) Pc circulating pressure at end of kill (kPa or psi) 5Dah along hole depth at point of interest (m or ft) Dah...

Casing Seat Test Procedure Leak off test

Drill out cement plus ca. 20 ft of formation 3. Pull the bit back in casing shoe 4. Make sure the hole is filled up and close the BOP around the drillpipe 5. Pump mud slowly using a high pressure low volume pump until the pressure builds up. Calibrated pressure gauges, covering various pressure ranges and preferably mounted on a special manifold, should be used. Mud gauges are not accurate enough for these measurements. Rig pumps are unsuitable for carrying out casing seat tests. 6. Then pump...

Causes Of Bit Failure

- Wrong bit for formation bit too soft or too hard - Wrong diamond size for formation - Incorrect or inappropriate operating conditions - formation impaction fluid volume velocity insufficient to keep channels or bit face - Reaming to bottom too quickly or with excessive weight - Insufficient gauge protection - Insufficient fluid to keep bit clean - Junk pumped down string causing plugging - LCM or swabbing to bottom too quickly - Junk in hole - Insufficient cutter coverage COMMON PROBLEMS...

Lignosulphonates lignites thinners

Lignosulphonates and lignites are available under numerous trade names. These chemicals are thinners and dispersants. They reduce the yield point dynamic attractive forces and the gels static attractive forces , and hence the funnel viscosity. The yield point and gels are reduced because the thinner coats the bentonite particles and neutralises charged particles on the surface of the clay. With surface charges neutralized, the clays can disperse properly and thus form a thin filter cake with a...

Brines

Function Drilling Fluid

Brines - solutions of salt in water - are widely used as workover completion fluid. Depending on the type of salt and its concentration densities between 1.0 kg I and 2.3 kg I can be obtained. Prices of the various brines vary strongly per area. A relative price as function of brine density is presented in Fig. I. Filtration is required to avoid formation damage by solids. Occasionally brines must be viscosified to prevent losses to the formation or to ensure sufficient carrying capacity in...

Sodium Chloride NaCI Brine

NaCI brine is made up from sacked salt and fresh water. The maximum obtainable density is 1.18 kg I. NaCI brine is fairly cheap and easy to operate. The pH can be adjusted with caustic soda or lime and NaCI brine can be viscosified with commercial viscosifiers. The composition and density of NaCI brines is depicted below.

Viscosity of Brines

The viscosity of most brines can be adjusted by additions of HEC or biopolymers. The viscosity characteristics of these products vary strongly with temperature. In order to judge the downhole viscosity measurements must be carried out at SBHT. To prevent losses of brine into the formation viscosities must be increasing with decreasing shear rates. Hence, a high YP is a prerequisite to prevent brine losses. shear rate sec 1 distance from centre m

Inside Diameter

1 Bas 5 il calcu at I one o' rccommcndcd tu lt c up lorquc assumes the u e of 5 in read compound contained 40 60X by weigh' of imoly powered metallic 2inc r 6U Cy weight of lingHy powdered metallic leaa applied norouqhiy to al tnreads and shciilde's and us ng ihe modi'iec lack screw forrrula in appendix a parag'aph a.6 and unit stress 0' 430875 kPa n he bun o f n. wli ul i v r i wt-dkv 1 Bas 5 il calcu at I one o' rccommcndcd tu lt c up lorquc assumes the u e of 5 in read compound contained 40...

Prior to withdrawing stinger

NB cement is same height inside as outside casing e Volume of water spacer behind slurry to achieve a balanced condition NB Height is same as height of water spacer ahead Vs Hw ahead x CapST VCH Lst - Hc - Hw behind x CapST LDP x Cap J and assuming water spacer behind does not enter dp. volume of cement slurry litres ft3 volume of cement between casing and open hole volume of cement between casing and casing volume of cement in shoe track volume of cement between liner and open hole volume of...

Running equipment

Elevators single jnt. side door slip type d. Spare dies for slips amp spider h. Klamp-on thread protectors i. Casing rams j. Drift mandrel k. Casing circulating head amp swings m. Stabbing board in good order Casing head housing weld-on or threaded Slip amp seal assy OR BRX type casing hanger X-bushing, plastic sticks amp injection tool

Calculation Of Maximum Allowable Casing Test Pressures

During pressure testing the total load on the casing must be smaller than the maximum allowable casing load. Fp Load due to test pressure P'est 4 casing ID d Wb - Buoyant weight of casing in mud lbs 5 Dogleg severity 2 for vertical wells D Casing OD inches Wn Weight of casing lbs ft

Gauging Products

Step 1 Get a ring gauge that has an inside diameter measuring nominal bit size. Example 61 2 bit 672 ring gauge Step 2 Center ring gauge over the gauge cutters Step 3 Measure gap at opposing cutters with feeler gauge. With a little experience you will be able to eyeball this gap. Step 4 Add the two gap readings. Step 5 The result should not exceed the minus tolerance in the table. - Use the same procedure as for sharp bit. - If the bit is out of gauge, consult your Smith Tool engineer for...

Presurvey Checklist For Magnetic Single Shots

An OpCo representative should ensure that the following is carried out. 1. Check that the required length of NMDC is available. 2. Check that the instrumentlanding assembly will seat correctly in the landing ring TOTCO ring , and will not jam or land eccentrically. 3. Check whether the instrument is to be top or bottom landed or used with a mule shoe. 4. Install the landing ring in the proper place when making up the BHA. Avoid landing the instrument directly on top of bit, mudmotor or turbine....

Bentoniteligno

Fresh water bentonite mud is a relatively inexpensive drilling mud which is used widely in drilling operations. The main mud parameters are maintained by careful balancing of clay and lignosulfonate additions. Addition of clay will increase YP and gel values whereas lignosulfonate additions will lower the fluid loss and YP gel values. When mud properties cannot be maintained additions of CMC-LV are required. The PV is kept low by optimal solids removal and dilution. Batchwise dilution...

Biopolymers

Recently several biopolymer X-C Polymer, Rhodopol, Enerflo, Drillam X 84 have found worldwide application in drilling fluids. These polymers are quite expensive. When used in concentrations as low as 2-3 kg m 3 1 Ib bbl a major increase in YP and gel values is normaly obtained. Various salts sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and pottassium chloride are used for drilling through salt sections. The mud is saturated to the salt that is expected in the hole and thus washouts due to the...

Simplified Roller Bit Classification System

A new roller bit classification system has been approved by the American Petroleum Institute as a recommended practice and It will be included in the forthcoming edition of RP7G. Recommended practice for drill stem design and operating limits . The system is meant to standardise the nomenclature for roller bits according to the application recommended by the manufacturer and their special features and not to standardise the bit design itself. A 3-digit code is used. The first digit series...

P Pi Pd P P

Introduction to Drilling and Producton Techniques 5w CTC Round I Self Study Examination 1 day CTC Mud and Cement Chemistry 1wj STC Drilling Techniques 5w CTC P133 Well Control Refresher 3d STC P211 Production Chemistry 7d STC PD02 Round II Self Study Examination 3 days CTC P201 Petroleum Engineering 2w CTC P215 Production Techniques 2w STC P230 Drilling Techniquues 3w CTC P231 Mud and Cement Chemistry integral part of P2.30 P290 or Introduction to Business Techniques, Economics and Project P220...

Pressure Equalizing

GRADING OF WORN ROLLER BITS Reporting Wear in Eights Degree of tooth v new dullness Ti tooth height 7a gone tooth height V4 gone tooth height 3 8 gone tooth height 7 gone tooth height gone tooth height 3 4 gone tooth height 78 gone tooth height all gone NOTE If any one row has a majority of teeth broken, add the letters BT BEARING CONDITION check the worst cone B1 bearing life used 7 B2 bearing life used 7, tight B3 bearing life used B4 bearing life used 72 medium B5 bearing life used B6...

Kill And Choke Lines Pressure Drop A P

E.M.G equivalent mud gradient BDF BDF gt 1 - walerdepth x Ps 2. MAASP E.M.G. x DshoeTVBDF Dshoe TV BDF x pmud 3. MAASP E.M.G. X DshoeTVBDF - .' C hoe TV BDF Dratted TVBDf X prn i-choke line X pfiyj J Two Methods to read the annulus pressures while killing A. Use choke line only and read off pressure from the choke line gauge. Pchoke becomes at start of circulation Pan - AP , and static MAASP becomes MAASP - AP Dynamic MAASP B. Use choke line for returns, keep kill line closed in and read off...

Opi

The spear head overshot is released and pulled up to the derrickman so that he can thread it down through the next stand of pipe. This operation is repeated until the overshot is at a short distance of the fish. At this point, the mud is circulated to remove all the cuttings and debris in the overshot and on the top of the fish. A circulating sub attached on the top of the drill pipe tool joint in the rotary table holds the lower section of the cable while circulating with the kelly pump...

Sensator Fluid Level Check Procedure

1 With empty blocks the gap 'A' on the Sensator should be approximately in. 2 If gap 'A' decreases to 3 s in. then the system is low on fluid. If this gap is allowed to close then the system is out of fluid and no further movement of gauge is possible. DRILL COLLAR WEIGHTS STEEL POUNDS PER FOOT

Quick Look Log Interpretation

Check mudfog core, sidewall samples for lithology, hydrocarbon shows Sand - Shale GR distinguishes Sand low reading from Shale high reading . Density Neutron shows Shale as a separation between the curves Neutron runs to the left . Carbonate Neutron reads zero porosity in non-reservoir Salt, Anhydrite, tight Limestone, tight Dolomite . Density - Neutron identifies Salt, Anhydrite, Limestone, Dolomite. Use loggers Chartbook . GR identifies Shales and Radioactive Salts. Check Density - Neutron to...

Looking Down The Drillstring Towards The

A Toolface 0e b Toolface 180' Bit and mudmotor tyring to build Bit and mudmotor trying to drop angle while maintaining azimuth. angle while maintaining azimuth. c Toolface 90' d Toolface - 300 60 left Bit and mudmotor trying to Bit and mudmotor trying to build maintain inclination and turn well angle and turn well to the left, to the right.

Maximum Safe Dogleg Limits S Drill Pipe

Pipe Drill Guide

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB Safety is the responsibility of everyone associated with the drilling operation. In order to conduct safe operations, contractor and company personnel must clearly understand and effectively discharge their respective responsibilities The drilling contractor is responsible for Implementation of a...

Viscosity

The viscosity of the mud is very important for the optimisation of various different mud functions. The viscosity is measured with two different instruments The Marsh funnel and the Fann viscometer. 2.1 THE MARSH FUNNEL VISCOSITY - expressed in seconds per quart 946 ml - is determined with very simple equipment. The marsh funnel is used routinely on the rigs to establish whether changes in the mud properties occur. Further conclusions cannot be drawn from the marsh funnel viscosity results. 2.2...

Brine Filtration

Removal of all suspended solids from a brine is essential to prevent formation damage. Several innovative techniques such as centrifuges and flocculation flotation are under development. Filtration, however, is still the most widely used method. Two type of filters are commonly used. Precoat Filters Precoat filters consist of a course back-up screen on which the actual filter is built by particles added to the liquid stream. Diatomecious earth DE is the most commonly used filter medium some...

Zinc Bromide ZnBr Brine

Zinc bromide brine must be used when densities higher than 1.70 kg I are required. It is supplied in plastic lined drums as a 2.30 kg I solution. The density is adjusted by mixing this solution with 1.70 kg I CaBr2 CaCI2 brine. Zinc bromide brines are toxic and may cause severe burns on the skin. Moreover, ZnBr2 brines are acidic and highly corrosive. Oxygen scavenger, and corrosion inhibitors must be added continuously as the effectiveness of these materials decrease sharply with time. Zinc...

Hydraulic Design

Matrix Body M Matrix Body PDC S Steel Body PDC T TSP Matrix Body O Other ALTERNATE CODES R _ RADIAL FLOW X CROSS FLOW O OTHER The numbers i - 9 in the thlrfl characer tf trie IADC code refer to Ihe bit's hydraulic lt j s jn The letters RX. aMO apply to some types lt 4 open trwoai bits ALTERNATE CODES R _ RADIAL FLOW X CROSS FLOW O OTHER The numbers i - 9 in the thlrfl characer tf trie IADC code refer to Ihe bit's hydraulic lt j s jn The letters RX. aMO apply to some types lt 4 open trwoai bits...

Wireline Fishing

Logging tools may become stuck downhole, for different reasons - Hole collapsing or loose formation. Hole bridging. - Torpedo or cable head caught in a keyseat. - Cable or tool differentially stuck. - Tool stopped in a split casing shoe. Once the tool is stuck, pulling on the cable does not help on the contrary it will definitely trap the tool for good When the wireline is still intact it is best to,use a cable guide technique the wireline will hold the fish in a centralized position and serve...

Presurvey Checklist

Check that the instrument landing assembly will seat correctly in the landing ring TOTCO ring , and not jam or land eccentrically. 2. Install the landing ring in the proper lace when making up the bottom hole assembly BHA . 3. Avoid landing the instrument directly on top of bit, mudmotor or turbine. The instrument could get stuck and furthermore make circulation impossible. 4. Check that the fishing tool will fit over the fishing neck. 5. Check that the Instrument will pass the BHA above the...

Maximum Safe Dogleg Limits Grade E Drill Pipe

0.85 0.75 Proposed Mud Weight, at TD psi ft MO 16 IQOi 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 0.85 0.75 Proposed Mud Weight, at TD psi ft MO 16 IQOi 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB 100 120 140 160 1B0 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB 100 120 140 160 1B0 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 TENSION IN DRILL PIPE BELOW DOG-LEG, 1000 LB

Liner cementation

Having set liner and retracted running sleeve. e Displace cement at recommended rate pressure lt f Pump until pump down plug reaches liner wiper plug h Displace combined wiper plugs to float collar a Quantity of cement and mixwater required b Thickening time and compressive strength c Chase volume to i displace pumpdown plug to load in liner wiper plug ii displace combined plugs to float collar e Pressure differential prior to bumping combined plugs h Total hookload immediately prior to setting...

Uses of Prehydrated Bentonite

Bentonite is added to water based muds to increase the viscosity and gel strength, suspend solids and increase the carrying capacity of the mud. Bentonite forms a filter cake and, if properly dispersed, is the main agent for reducing water loss. Bentonite will yield in fresh water less than 50 g l salt but not in salty water. Hence if bentonite is to be used in salty water, it must be prehydrated in fresh water. Before adding bentonite to the water or any other chemical , test the water for...

Calculation Stages

Calculate the height in the annulus occupied by the string contents, Di 2. Calculate P, p po - D1 Pi 3. Calculate the pressure at the top of the influx, 4. Calculate the expanded height h of the influx in the annulus with V2 5. Calculate Pann, pAnn P0 - D - h pl - PF D1 The height of the displaced string contents in the annulus P Pressure at the bottom of the expanded influx Po Formation pressure or BHP if BHP gt Po hb HEIGHT OF GAS COLUMN AT THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLE, OR IF THE AREA OF THE...

Closing Area Ram Shaft Area

Closing pressure required to close ram preventer with rated pressure in bore Rated Working Pressure Closing Ratio Example Hydril 476Vd mm 187 ' - 68,950 kPa 10,000 psi w.p. ram type BOP. Closing ratio shear and pipe 10.56 Solving for closing pressure required to close ram Closing pressure required 6,529.5 kPa 947 psi Example N.L Shaffer 4767 mm 18V - 68,950 kPa 10,000 psi w.p. 'SL'with 356 mm 14 diameter pistons. Closing ratio shear and pipe 7.11 Solving for closing pressure required to close...

Excessive Torque

Reduce weight and RPM Increase rotary Decrease weight Check bottom hole assembly stabilizers should be Vj, to 71S under hole size Increase flow rate and work Pull bit Slip-stick action Broken formation Pump off force Change rotary weight combination Rcducc rotary speed and weight Increase weight Decrease volume

Conclusions

16 subsea accumulator bottles and 62 surface ones are sufficient to satisfy API RP-53. Furthermore, the hydraulic reservoir capacity is approximately equal to that necessary to open and close the 4 ram type BOP's and 1 spherical BOP. API RP-53 gives no guidance on this matter. Nor does it give guidance on the amount of subsea bottles required. EP 89-1500 July 1989 Pressure control manual for drilling and workover operations states the following The accumulator bottles precharge pressure...

Setting a Balanced Cement Plug

d Displace with mud either i underdisplace e Pull stinger slowly and do not rotate string will disturb cement a Quantity of cement and mixwater required b Thickening time and compressive strength Prior to withdrawal of stinger determine d Height of water spacer ahead of slurry e Volume of water required behind slurry to achieve a balanced condition The following calculations are for setting a plug in open hole only i.e. one size of annulus . The water spacer ahead is also considered to be in...