Biopolymers

Recently several biopolymer (X-C Polymer, Rhodopol, Enerflo, Drillam X/84) have found worldwide application in drilling fluids. These polymers are quite expensive. When used in concentrations as low as 2-3 kg/m 3 (1 Ib/bbl) a major increase in YP and gel values is normaly obtained.

10. Salts

Various salts ( sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and pottassium chloride ) are used for drilling through salt sections. The mud is saturated to the salt that is expected in the hole and thus washouts due to the dissolution of the salt layers are prevented. Ref. also the section on salt saturated muds.

11. Weighting material

Barytes, Dolomite and Iron oxide are used as weighting materials. Prior to adding weighting material the mud must have a YP sufficient to keep the Barytes in suspension. Weighting materials add solids and proportionally reduce the amount of free water in the system.

COMMON MUD ADDITIVES, NAMES AND FORMULAE.

COMMON NAME CHEMICAL NAME CHEMICAL FORMULA

Lime (cement)

Calcium Hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

Caustic Soda

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

Gypsum

Calcium Sulphate

CaS04

Soda Ash

Sodium Carbonate

Na2C03

Bicarb

Sodium Bicarbonate

NaHC03

Hematite

Iron Oxide

F©203.FeO

Barytes

Barium Sulphate

BaS04

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