- Clastic: rocks formed or fragments transported from their source and deposited elsewhere (e.g. sandstone, shale)
- Evaporites: rocks formed by precipitation or solution and recrystalization (e.g. rock salt, gypsum)
- Carbonates: rocks formed from inorganic remains such as shells or skeletons of organisms (e.g. limestone)
- Metamorphic: rocks altered by heat, pressure, chemical factors, the introduction of water, or other factores resulting in a more compact and highly crystalline condition (e.g. slate, gneiss)
- Igneous: rocks that have been molten at some time in their history. Usually associated with the intrusion or extrusion of magma related to volcanic activity (e.g. granite, basalt)
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