Water To Surface

The assumption of "water to the surface" also may produce an underground blowout. However, it is assumed that preparations can be made to pump water into the well before running out of mud. This does not account for drillpipe failure or pumping equipment failure. The problem of drillpipe kicks can be minimized by running a float. For this case, the pump pressure required is about 7800 psi. Even cementing equipment is not rated for extended service at this pressure; therefore, considerable redundancy is mandatory. If the pumping equipment fails, the casing will burst if not designed for the gas to surface load, leaving a blowout.

The assumption of a kick also represents an underground blowout if the kick exceeds the available kick tolerance (as is the case here). The shoe is broken down and the permeable gas zone will flow if the fracture pressure at the shoe is below formation pressure in the permeable zone. This does not account for drillpipe failure, pumping equipment failure or running out of mud. A float minimizes the risk from drillpipe kicks. There is usually sufficient pumping equipment redundancy for pumping mud at the low pressures and rates required.

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Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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