Preface Of Petroleum

In this book I have attempted to present an integrated picture of drilling and well completion operations as they are normally encountered by the petroleum engineer. In order to do this without assuming prior knowledge in the field, it was necessary to introduce a number of rather general topics. The chapters on reservoir fluid properties, reservoir rock properties, exploration and leasing practices, core analysis, well logging and formation damage fall into this category. The coverage in these...

Rn

Where Lc, Lp length of drill collars and pipe, respectively, ft turbulent pressure loss inside pipe, psi, according to Hughes charts (see Problem 6) _ (0.58)(5.5) 0.5 3.83V 86 1 (3.83)4-86 5.5 2.75y J de 0.123(507) 2000) 0728 in Assuming 3 equal size nozzles, the actual size of each should be , 0.728 _ . d - 0.42 in. V3 It is interesting to compare this solution to that of Example 8.1. Ex. 8.1 Apb 1540 psi, HP, 314 Ex. 8.2 Apb 1300 psi, HPi, 384 We note that the bit pressure loss has dropped...

J

Bottom hole orientation substitute and photographic record. The arrow indicates that the north pole of the sub magnets is pointed at S. 40 E. Courtesy Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company. of the north pole of the substitute magnets is clearly shown. The pipe may then be rotated as desired. A second shot may be made to insure proper alignment. One of three deflection patterns is commonly chosen in the planning of a directional well.17 These are shown as Types 1, 2, and 3 in Figure 9.27....

Fl Li j LzJ

(b) What fraction of total flow passes through each core Ans. 6 23, 8 23, 9 23. 1. Levorsen, A. I., Geology of Petroleum. San Francisco W. H. Freeman and Co., 1954, p. 478. 2. ZoBell, C. E., The Role of Bacteria in the Formation and Transformation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Science, Vol. 102, Oct. 12, 1945, pp. 364-369. 3. DeGolyer, E., ed., Elements of the Petroleum Industry. New York AIME, 1940, p. 26. 4. Gussow, W. C., Differential Entrapment of Oil and Gas A Fundamental Principle, Bulletin...

Weiht With No Stabilizerthousand Pounds

After Woods and Lubinski,8 courtesy API. Ideal stabilizer location from bit, ft 90 87 76 Without stabilizer 3,700 5,000* 5,900* With stabilizer 4,600f 6,300 7,400t Make the same comparison as in Example 9.9 for a more moderate crooked hole formation. The hole deviation of 3 is obtained with 19,000 lb on bit using 6-in. collars with no stabilizer. Ideal stabilizer location from bit, ft Without stabilizer 19,000 30,000* 42,500* From these and other similar examples,...

Vb

W 5L05 p 2.63 23.6 - 19.4 23.6 (So + Sw) 1 - (0.27 + 0.36) 0.37 or 37 Numerous other miscellaneous core tests are performed by commercial laboratories. Some of these will be discussed in a later section on special core testing some, however, such as chloride content, core oil density, and grain size distribution tests will not be considered. Other texts which devote more space to these topics are listed as recommended outside readings and should be consulted. Also, the references at the end of...

Vertical Section

KM Mt OU'HA , 10*00* AT 9000' M.Q. coloraoo oil company mines nt 6 golden, coloraoo Fig. 9.28. Typical directional-drilling completion report showing cylinder of permissible variation. Courtesy Eastman Oil Well Survey Company. OBJECTIVE 1096' S42-I0'e OF SURFACE LOCATION AT 8480' T.v.0 K.J. KMUCK LI JO HT WOi.-WAITIHt m CEMEHT W.0M.--WAITIH6 OH WE AT HEP OHLS --0HILLIH6 summary

Circulation Rategallons Per Minute

Pressure drop through inside of drill pipe vs. circulation rate. Courtesy Hughes *. iAo-u pm AP 13 ) X0T5X AP Note tltat this result checks with that of Example 7.3 within 4 this is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. There are, however, certain mud engineering problems which are best solved by the more rigorous method presented previously. This is illustrated by Example 7.5. (a) Given the following data, compute the bottom hole circulating pressure. Drill Collars 600 ft of...

Drill Pipe With Conduit For Transmission Line Npl Articles

Schematic valve operation for double acting slush pump. The displacement of a duplex mud pump may be computed from e volumetric efficiency (commonly taken as 90 for power or 85 for steam pumps) Proper pump selection and utilization is extremely important to the over-all efficiency of a drilling operation. The circulation requirements in the area of use should be carefully analyzed before the final selection is made. Typical hydraulic calculations which emphasize this point will be...

GeA KL

Since d2(S, + Sv) dW2 2G W3 which is positive and 0, the function of Eg. (4.11) has a minimum value where W W0 2GeA K2L Equation (4.12) permits the calculation of tool weight for the shortest possible stroke for any energy input, G, at any depth, L. Bonham logically assumes that the minimum value of Sj + Sy for any condition will result in minimum cable wear and allow the maximum strokes per minute giving the greatest economy and footage. This is the reverse of the harmonic approach which...

Weight With No Stabilizerthousand Pounds

163 Calculation Template

After Woods and Lubinski,8 courtesy API. Hole 61 in. if such experience was obtained with some other combination of collar size, hole size, etc. Similar charts for other sizes may be constructed from dimensionless charts presented in the original work.8 Use of Figures 9.10 to 9.17 is illustrated by the following examples. The following data refer to an extremely severe crooked hole formation. Hole size is 8 J in. The maximum allowable hole deviation of 3 is reached...

Average Footase

HUH9ER Of OEFLECTIOH TOOLS SfT I coloraoo oil company mines nt 6 golden, coloraoo Fig. 9.28. Typical directional-drilling completion report showing cylinder of permissible variation. Courtesy Eastman Oil Well Survey Company. however, become extremely costly and time consuming, and even result in loss of the hole. Many fishing jobs start with the drill pipe becoming stuck during a trip. Some of the causes of stuck pipe are (1) foreign objects or junk in the hole (3) sloughing formations (heaving...

Supplementary Readings

Those desiring to study more thoroughly rock penetration by various drilling devices will find the following references quite helpful. These will also serve to introduce the petroleum engineer to the considerable mining engineering literature on these subjects. 1. Hartman, H. L., Fundamental Studies of Percussion Drilling, Mining Engineering, Jan. 1959, p. 68. 2. Goodrich, R. H., High Pressure Rotary Drilling Machines, Missouri School of Mines Symposium, Bull. 94, S. Fairhurst, C., The Design...

Info

Ratio of primary to secondary nozzle areas (R ratio) Fig. 8.31. Drilling rate and horsepower as functions of nozzle area ratios. After Eckel,52 courtesy AIME. by wire line operations. Future improvements in bit design are indicated, and savings of 25 of drilling costs may be possible by this method. This modification involves the simultaneous drilling of two directional wells with a single rig and drilling crew. This technique has reportedly been successfully applied by the Russians in some...

Correction Factor

I00' 90 80' 70' SO' 50' 40' 30 20' I00' 90 80' 70' SO' 50' 40' 30 20' Fig. 11.6. Empirical correction chart for the SP curve. Courtesy Schlumberger Well This is qualitatively true however, there is absolutely no known quantitative relationship involved. A bed with any permeability may exhibit an SP even though the magnitude of its permeability is too small to be of commercial interest. The equation usually used for quantitative interpretation of self-potential behavior is where SSP static...

Stabbing The Aooed Single Into Top Joint Of Drill Pipe

Drilling Rig Petroleum Engineering

SWINGING THE SWIVEL a KELLY OVER SINGLE FOR MOUSEHOLE CONNECTION velocity of line being spooled or un-spooled at the drawworks during hoisting A portable derrick or mast is one capable of being erected as a unit. The telescoping type in Figure 5.4 is one example. Specifications for portable masts are given in API Standard 4D.3 These specifications are not as precise as those for standard derricks, and more variations of design are in evidence. The computations of wind, setback, and compressive...

Ii Ii

Circulating and static wellbore temperatures for Gulf Coast wells of various depths. Courtesy Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company. Fig. 7.13. Worst pipe running condition closed end . Arrows indicate counter flow pattern in annulus. Fig. 7.13. Worst pipe running condition closed end . Arrows indicate counter flow pattern in annulus. cuttings. These velocities are such that turbulent flow always exists thus cutting slip velocity can be defined by Rittinger's equation where vt....

Vtscosityv Ah Seconds

Sodium Chloride Equivalent Table

Mud logging, as the term is used here, refers to the continuous analysis of the drilling mud for oil and gas content. Cutting inspection and analysis are also included in the complete service. This procedure is widely used in exploratory drilling, and affords an extra tool for detecting the presence of oil and gas.1 The basic oil or gas detection equipment consists of a mud-gas separator and an electric filament or hot wire. This wire is one component of a bridge circuit similar to the well...

W Wt W i

Wt tool weight, lb, including bit, drill stem, etc. Wi weight of drilling line L length of cable or depth of hole , ft This is the same equation as that presented by Mills6 which defines W in a different manner. where W,' tool weight line weight, lb The derivation of these equations may be found in any engineering mechanics text,7 and are actually forms of where natural frequency of a spring supported weight under free vibration By this theory, the drilling speed should be the natural frequency...

Rubber Diaphragm

After Stewart and Spurlock,5 courtesy Oil and Gas Journal. This apparatus divides the circumference of the core into quarters, with flow taking place between two diametrically opposed, full length sections. Under these conditions the use of a shape or flow path distortion factor is unnecessary. This may be shown as follows where Lm is the mean flow path length, and other notations are standard Darcy equation variables. However, the area A through which flow...

Shaft Speed

Courtesy 1955 Institut Fran ais du P trole and J. B. Bailli re et Fils. Paris HP Effective Delivered Horsepower at the shaft T Torque in Lb.-Ft. P Pressure Losses in the Turbine in PSI E Mechanical Efficiency Fig. 8.26. Operating characteristics of a 10-in. turbodrill. After Thacker and Postlewaite,47 MARL 800 LIMESTONE i AND LIME- STONE 900 607. CaCOj MARL 800 LIMESTONE i AND LIME- STONE 900 607. CaCOj Fig. 8.27. Comparison of turbodrill and conventional drilling rates -After Scott,17 courtesy...

Oil And Mud Coating

Offshore Oil Rig Creole Field

DECK DRAINS TO COMMON HEADER EMPTY INTO SLOT ENGINE GENERATOR SET Fig. 5.15. Inland water drilling barge with heavy duty diesel-electric rig. After Rowan,10 Fig. 5.15. Inland water drilling barge with heavy duty diesel-electric rig. After Rowan,10 are available however, all are essentially valves designed for closing the annular passage between two concentric pipes. Most blowout preventers are either hydraulically or pneumatically operated, with manual operation available as a safety...

Nozzle Areasqin

Mud Cake Petroleum

Pressure drop across conventional water course bits. Assuming pm 9.5 lb gal and C 0.80. Courtesy Hughes Tool Company. where n either plastic or apparent mud viscosity nw water viscosity T temperature, F Use of this equation requires knowledge of viscosity at two temperatures, so that linear plots can be established. Water viscosity data were given in Figure 6.8. Yield point at the desired temperature may then be calculated from Eq. 6.4. The average circulating temperature of the mud...

Oil Concentration Per Cent By Volume

Relative drilling rate vs. oil content West Texas field data. After Eckel,30 courtesy API. which more than compensate for the latter detrimental effects. Density and solid content decreases may be compensating factors in some instances. Laboratory test results showing the effect of oil percentage on the drillability of two Gulf Coast shales are shown in Figure 8.17. Note the optimum oil concentration for shale B which is not evident for shale A. This optimum percentage shale B...

Trans Water Water

Core analysis and productivity interpretation for a predominately silty Cockfield sand. After Elmdahl,28 courtesy AIME. Fig. 10.29. Core analysis and productivity interpretation for a predominately silty Cockfield sand. After Elmdahl,28 courtesy AIME. will bleed oil and gas for several hours after being recovered. The saturations obtained from samples taken near the center of such cores may have undergone relatively little flushing. Highly permeable cores are readily flushed and may...

Si Sy

The following restrictions and assumptions will be made 1. K 2. This means that the cable tension at the start of the pickup stroke is sufficient to give the tools an upward acceleration of g. , 2. The upper limit for G is fixed at 1325 D. This is arbitrarily chosen as the limit imposed by bit life between sharpenings, and must be evaluated for different formations from field experience. 4.18 Work per unit time GN 1325 DN The input horsepower to the formation may therefore be expressed as If it...

Completion Coregraph

Sample Graph Financial Interpretation

Sample core analysis report. Courtesy Core Laboratories, Inc. Fig. 10.30. Sample core analysis report. Courtesy Core Laboratories, Inc. In any given reservoir, the sequence of fluids from the top down must be free gas if present , oil, and water. It must also be remembered that the contacts between these fluids are zones and not sharp interfaces, unless permeability is very high. It is therefore possible to predict such contacts from saturation changes, providing other factors which...

Rotary Drilling General Method and Equipment

Drill String And Bit

5.1 Introduction and Basic Operations The rotary drilling method is comparatively new, having first been practiced by Leschot, a French civil engineer, in 1863. United States patents on rotary equipment were issued as early as 1866 but, as was the case with cable tools, the early application was for water well drilling. It was not until approximately 1900 that two water well drilling contractors, M. C. and C. E. Baker, moved their rotary equipment from South Dakota to Corsicana, Texas where it...

Solution Of Problems On

Petroleum Engineer Problem

To 9 b i 6 3RILL CO.LtR 0.0 - INCHES Fig. 9.8 A . Sample solution for example problems. To 9 b i 6 3RILL CO.LtR 0.0 - INCHES Fig. 9.8 A . Sample solution for example problems. Collar OD, in. Weight, lb Hole size, in. Hole inclination, Formation dip, This problem cannot be directly solved. It is necessary to try a few collar sizes and proceed for each of them as in Example 9.4. Collar OD, in. Weight, lb Hole size, in. Hole inclination, Formation dip, This problem cannot be directly solved. It is...

Pressure Psia

Petroleum Engineering Chart

But z function of p, therefore the solution requires trial and error. 5. The PVT behavior of a reservoir oil is shown in Figure 1.16. Calculate the reservoir volume occupied by one barrel of tank oil and its originally dissolved gas at a 2000 psig, b 1000 psig. The reservoir temperature 220 F, and gas gravity 1.06. Values of z are obtained at 60 F at the assumed pressures from the 0.80 gravity chart.

X

P, INPUT PRESSURE Pe OVERFLOW PRESSURE Fig. 6.19. Flow pattern in mud cyclone. After Scott and Lummus,37 courtesy Oil and Gas Journal. ing his tour or shift and records the results on the tour report. This furnishes the mud engineer with all pertinent information as to what occurred during his absence. If precise mud control is necessary, the engineer may be required to be on continuous duty at the wellsite. A considerable problem in mud systems is the gradual accumulation of drilled solids...

Concepts of Petroleum Geology and Basic Rock Properties

Geology Andrews County Texas

Petroleum is not found in underground lakes or rivers, but it exists within the void space of certain rocks. Unfortunately, these oil-bearing rocks are a definite minority, and the determination of their whereabouts is the basic problem confronting geologists and geophysicists. The mechanism of the origin and accumulation of petroleum is not completely understood and is the subject of much controversy. However, a great deal has been learned about the habitat of oil and gas, i.e., the nature of...

Compressibility Factor Natural

Pseudo Reduced Pressure

Aromatics benzene series having the general formula C H2 _6. These compounds are chemically active and contain the benzene ring. The simplest member is In addition to hydrocarbons, petroleum may contain numerous impurities such as carbon dioxide C02 , hydrogen sulfide H2S , and other complex compounds of nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. When it is considered that any particular crude oil may contain a portion of each of the listed hydrocarbon series plus numerous impurities, and that its...

Engine Control Instrument

After Bobo, Ormsby, and Houch,42 courtesy Oil and Gas Journal. 2 greater safety quick weight buildup is quickly obtained by shutting off the injected air. Explosions and or fire possibilities are minimized by the water in the mixture. A typical layout for this method is shown in Figure 6.23. Air is injected into the system between the mud pumps and the standpipe. The air-mud ratio may be controlled by increasing or reducing inputs of each fluid. Such a system is...

Chart For Determination Of

Directional Drilling Applications

HOLE CURVATURE DOG-LEG SEVERITY DEGREES PER 100 FT. Fig. 9.20. Solution of Example 9.12. advantages which may be derived from closer producer-drilling contractor cooperation in developing modern contract specifications. The general purpose of directional drilling is to place the bottom of a well under an inaccessible surface location. In such drilling, both the vertical and horizontal deviation are carefully controlled within pre-computed limits. Some specific applications of directional...

Thousand Lb Wt

The effect of bit loading on penetration rate for various rocks. Laboratory data atmospheric pressure. Courtesy Hughes Tool Company.10 Again, the true relationship may be obscured by the hole cleaning variable. A satisfactory nozzle velocity at 100 rpm may not be adequate at 200 rpm, since at the latter speed a cutting has only half as much time to clear bottom prior to the next tooth impact. The Battelle Institute study2'3 set forth a formula for a rate of advance predicting...

RS ftsec ftmin

Petroleum Engineering Charts

In practice, a general rule of thumb figure for annular velocity is from 2000 to 4000 ft min, with an average of 3000 ft min. This is adequate to lift f- to -in. spherical cuttings at low pressures and temperatures. Although most air drilled cuttings are quite small actually dust particle size when they reach the surface, this does not mean they were that small when they left bottom. The milling action of the drill string in the dry hole and impacts with other cuttings probably are largely...

A G lml SmP MCFAcreft

Figure Tank

In addition to being porous, a reservoir rock must be permeable that is, it must allow fluids to flow through its pore network at practical rates under reasonable pressure differentials. Permeability is defined as a measure of a rock's ability to transmit fluids. The quantitative definition of permeability was first given in an empirical relationship developed by the French hydrologist Henry D'Arcy who studied the flow of water through unconsolidated sands. This law in its differential form is...

Well Logging

Well Log Drilling Gold

A well log may be defined as a tabular or graphical portrayal of any drilling condition s or subsurface feature s encountered which relate to either the progress or evaluation of an individual well. The records of core analysis data vs. depth, shown in the last chapter, are often called core logs. This chapter will discuss the following common logs and introduce the general subject of electric and radioactivity log interpretation. 1. Driller's logs including drilling time In the early days of...

PV znRT

Compressibility Factor Chart

Where p pressure, absolute V - volume n number of mols R gas constant T absolute temperature z deviation also called compressibility factor to account for the difference between actual and ideal gas volumes. The value of R is dependent on the system of units used, as given in Table 1.2. Values of the Gas Constant R for Different Values of p, V, and T Values of the Gas Constant R for Different Values of p, V, and T 5000 6000 7000 8000 500 I000 1500 PRESSURE P.S.I. A.

Number Of Cleaning Cycles

Helium Porosimeter

Special apparatus for cleaning whole core samples. After Stewart and Spurlock,5 Fig. 10.8. Operation of two cell Boyle's law porosimeter. Fig. 10.8. Operation of two cell Boyle's law porosimeter. shown in Figure 10.8 is well known and illustrates the principle involved.7'8 Two cells of known volumes, Vl and V2, are connected to a source of gas pressure G as shown in the diagram. The connecting valve B between the cells is closed and cell 1 is filled to an initial absolute pressure Pi...

Idealized Diagram Of Oriented Bentonite Particles To Form Dispersed Flocs In A Surfactant System

Idealized dispersion states of bentonite particles in dispersed, flocculated, and 6.51 Salt Section Hole Enlargement In many areas considerable thicknesses of rock salt must be penetrated. Solution and erosion of these beds can cause excessive hole enlargement which in turn may be a source of future trouble and expense. 1 In case of drill string failure, the enlarged hole makes fishing operations attempts to retrieve the drill string exceedingly difficult. 2 Larger mud volumes are...

Carl Gatlin

Department of Petroleum Engineering, The University of Texas I960, by PRENTICE-HALL, INC. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publishers Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-6874 Current printing last digit 13 12 11 printed in the united states of america

Coring and Core Analysis

Conventional Core

Analyses of rock samples yield data basic to the evaluation of the productive potential of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Bit cuttings are, of course, rock samples their small size, however, precludes their furnishing more than qualitative information. The desire to obtain and examine larger, unbroken pieces of reservoir rock led to the development of coring techniques, by which relatively large reservoir rock samples are obtained, either from the bottom during drilling, or from the side of the bore...

Pounds Solids Per Barrel Of

A GOOD SALT CLAY IN SALT WATER APPROXIMATES THE B EN TON I TE YIELD CURVE IN FRESH WATER Fig. 6.12. Yield curves for typical clays.4 which make their use advantageous. Common chemical treatments will be mentioned for each of these muds and reference will be made to the mud additives listed in Table 6.2. The complexity of drilling mud chemistry is such that it cannot be covered in the allotted space, and the interested reader is referred to Rogers' text6 as a starting point. Seemingly, no...

Weight Lb

Practice Curves

Drilling practice curves showing applied range of weight and rotary speed combinations. Courtesy Hughes Tool Company. Curves of constant weight-speed product have been added as follows 7f to 7f 8 to 9 9f to 9 10f to 12j 3.6 X 106 lb-rpm 4.0 X 106 4.8 X 10 6.4 X 10 Acceptable values of K will, in general, vary with bit size, since the smaller bits will not tolerate unit loadings as high as will the larger sizes. For the size range shown, however, there appears to be little difference...

Cable Tool Drilling

Cable Tool Percussion Drilling Method

The first oil well in the United States was drilled with cable tools in 1859 to a depth of 65 feet. This was the historic Drake well located near Titusville, Pennsylvania it is credited with having started the American petroleum industry. The cable tool also called churn or percussion drilling method, however, did not originate in this country, but is believed to have been employed first by the early Chinese in the drilling of brine wells.1 In this method, drilling is accomplished by the...

G TFS Sv

Oj o H--jr j stroke of tools necessary to produce net energy input of G ft-lb to formation Equation 4.10 contains seven variables the following restrictions, however, may be made L slowly varying quantity and may be assumed constant to study conditions at any particular depth K,G f drilling speed, tool weight, etc. . These will be discussed later, but will be considered constants for the time being. Then we take the derivative of Si Sy with respect to W

The Composition Functions and General Nature of Rotary Drilling Fluids

Mud Balance

Early spring-pole drillers, including the ancient Chinese, added water to the borehole as an aid to rock softening and cutting removal. Since the drilling fluid is a comparatively unimportant feature of the cable tool method, little thought was given this subject until the advent of rotary drilling. As pointed out previously, the continuous circulation of the drilling fluid mud was a principal reason for the early success of rotary tools in areas considered undrillable by the percussion method....

Cutting Removals To The Surface The Rapidity By Which Cuttings Or Removals Are Removed From The Bit Has An Effect On

Correlation of stormer initial gel strength with Bingham yield value. Aftef Melrose and Lilienthal7, courtesy AIME. It consists of determining the rate at which filtrate continuous liquid phase of the mud is forced from the sample under a specified pressure 100 psig . Both the filtrate volume cc's and the mud cake thickness 32nd of an inch are reported. The standard time of the test is 30 minutes, hence the water loss is reported as cc's per 30 minutes. Fig. 6.6. Standard filter press...

Ax

A cross sectional area of steel in the drill pipe, in.2 Substituting 1 and 2 in Eq. 9.5 and solving for L, we obtain To save looking up or computing the area A it is more convenient to use the weight per foot of the pipe, which is always known. 3 w A 12 0.283 or A u gt 12 0.283 where w weight of drill pipe, lb ft 0.283 density of steel, lb in.3 Substitution of 3 for A in Eq. 9.6 gives 9.7 Eq. 9.7 is commonly known as the stuck pipe formula.24 Example 9.14 illustrates its application. A string...

Wekht With No Stamuzerthousand Pounos

After Woods and Lubinski,8 courtesy API. 20 40 0 SO 0 20 40 S SO i 20 30 40 WE1SHT WITH STABILIZER THOUSAMO POUNDS NOTE curves fob au imiii follow oaaheo curvc downward 20 40 0 SO 0 20 40 S SO i 20 30 40 WE1SHT WITH STABILIZER THOUSAMO POUNDS NOTE curves fob au imiii follow oaaheo curvc downward 5 33 33 re B so lb 20 0

Camera S Angle Unit

Gyroscopic multiple shot surveying instrument Surwel . Film shows direction by arrow, vertical deviation by cross, and time depth at which each picture was taken. Courtesy Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company. drives the chisel-shaped nose into the formation. When sufficient weight is applied, the shear pin fails, allowing the bit to rotate and drill off the face, as shown in Figure 9.22. The face is a concave groove with the desired deflection. After a few feet 10 to 20 have been...

Rotary Drilling Hydraulics

Petroleum Engineering Charts

Proper utilization of mud pump horsepower is of considerable importance to rotary drilling operations. Analytical appraisal of the rig's circulating system requires an understanding of the components which consume power, so that the available energy may be used as advantageously as possible. The standard hydraulics approach to such analyses is hindered by numerous factors, among which are 1 Mud flow property peculiarities, as discussed in Chapter 6 2 Irregularities of the circulating system....

Circulation Kategallons Per Minute

Viscosity Oil Based Mud

Pressure losses in surface connections. Courtesy Hughes Tool Company. 8. Annular loss around drill collars The critical velocity for this section is f 0.0062 0.0062 10 500 15.9 2 1.08 30 1.08V 30 2 9.3 10 1.125 2 10 7. Pressure drop across bit This is a jet bit with a nozzle coefficient of 0.95 therefore, Eq. 7.16, corrected for multiple nozzles, is used. where d equivalent single nozzle diameter for use in Eq. 7.13. a qW 308 2 10 Pb 7430c2d4 7430 0.95 2 0.704 4 580 psi Note Step a...

Largest Fracture Sealed

Summary of lost circulation tests. After Howard and Scott,32 courtesy AIME. Fig. 6.18. Summary of lost circulation tests. After Howard and Scott,32 courtesy AIME. Other smaller particles will then bridge in the openings between the larger, previously bridged particles. This process will continue until the openings become quite small and the problem becomes one of filtration. Visualization of this process implies that the particle size distribution should be considered, so that the...

Rotary Drilling Techniques

Petroleum Engineering Chart

Rotary drilling includes many separate techniques or practices which have been developed through field experience and or analytical appraisals. In this chapter we will discuss three such operations, namely 1 Control of hole deviation in essentially vertical wells vertical drilling 2 Control of hole deviation in wells which are intentionally aimed at horizontally displaced bottom hole targets directional drilling 3 Retrieving undesirable objects from the hole in particular, portions of the drill...