(1) Where shallow casing strings or conductor pipe are set, fracture gradients will be low. It may be impossible to close the BOP on a shallow gas kick without breaking down the formation at the shoe. If a shallow gas kick is taken while drilling top hole then the kick should be diverted.
Drilling shallow sand too fast can result in large volumes of gas cut mud in the annulus and cause the well to flow, also fast drilling can load up the annulus increasing the mud density leading to lost circulation and the level in annulus drops far enough then well may flow.
When drilling top hole a diverter should be installed and it is good practice to leave the diverter installed until 133/8'' casing has run. An automatic diverter system should first:
This can be used as a reference template to line up the following procedures.
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